Effect of dietary lipids on plasma fatty acid profiles and prostaglandin and leptin production in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils rich in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids on gilthead seabream plasma and leukocyte fatty acid compositions and prostaglandin (PG) and leptin production. Juvenile seabream of 24 g initial body mass were fed four iso-energetic and iso-proteic experimental diets for 281 days. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids was markedly affected by the inclusion of vegetable oils (VO). ARA (arachidonate), EPA (eicosapentaenoate) and DHA (docosahexaenoate) were preferentially incorporated into polar lipids of plasma, and DHGLA (di-homogammalinoleate) accumulated with increased vegetable oil inclusion. Dietary treatments resulted in alterations of DHGLA/ARA ratios, but not ARA/EPA. ARA-derived PGE(2) production in plasma was not affected by vegetable oils, in agreement with similar eicosanoid precursor ratio (ARA/EPA) in leukocytes total lipids and plasma phospholipids among fish fed with the different dietary treatments. Feeding vegetable oils leads to a decrease in plasma EPA which in turn reduced plasma PGE(3) concentration. Moreover, PGE(3) was the major prostaglandin produced in plasma of fish fed fish oil based diet. Such findings point out the importance of EPA as a precursor of prostaglandins in marine fish, at least for the correct function of the blood cells, and correlates well with the predominant role of this fatty acid in immune regulation in this species. A negative correlation was found between plasma PGE(2) and leptin plasma concentration, suggesting that circulating levels of leptin may act as a metabolic signal modulating PGE(2) release. The present study has shown that increased inclusion of vegetable oils in diet for gilthead seabream may profoundly affect the fatty acid composition of plasma and leukocytes, specially HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acids), and consequently the production of PGE(3), which can be a major PG in plasma. Alteration in the amount and type of PG produced can be at least partially responsible for the changes in the immune system and health parameters of fish fed diets with high inclusion of VO.