Mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
ABSTRACT Brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP, bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages, perivascular macrophages, and microglia) function to protect the nervous system by acting as debris scavengers, killers of microbial pathogens, and regulators of immune responses. MP are activated by a variety of environmental cues and such inflammatory responses elicit cell injury and death in the nervous system. MP immunoregulatory responses include secretion of neurotoxic factors, mobilization of adaptive immunity, and cell chemotaxis. This incites tissue remodelling and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. As disease progresses, MP secretions engage neighboring cells in a vicious cycle of autocrine and paracrine amplification of inflammation leading to tissue injury and ultimately destruction. Such pathogenic processes tilt the balance between the relative production of neurotrophic and neurotoxic factors and to disease progression. The ultimate effects that brain MP play in disease revolves "principally" around their roles in neurodegeneration. Importantly, common functions of brain MP in neuroimmunity link highly divergent diseases (for example, human immunodeficiency virus type-one associated dementia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease). Research into this process from our own laboratories and those of others seek to harness MP inflammatory processes with the intent of developing therapeutic interventions that block neurodegenerative processes and improve the quality of life in affected people.
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ABSTRACT: Galectin-1, an adhesion molecule, is expressed in macrophages and implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) viral adsorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 production in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) and the role of galectin-1 in methamphetamine potentiation of HIV-1 infection. Herein we show that levels of galectin-1 gene and protein expression are significantly increased by methamphetamine. Furthermore, concomitant incubation of MDM with galectin-1 and methamphetamine facilitates HIV-1 infection compared to galectin-1 alone or methamphetamine alone. We utilized a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod (GNR)-galectin-1 siRNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. Nanoplexes significantly silenced gene expression for galectin-1 and reversed the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 gene expression. Moreover, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 infection were attenuated in the presence of the nanoplex in MDM.Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 06/2012; 7(3):673-85. DOI:10.1007/s11481-012-9379-7 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emotional changes, impairment of object recognition, and neuroinflammation are seen in Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD). Here, we show that bilateral infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of Wistar rats caused degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, microglial activation in the SNc and hippocampus, and cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area. With regard to behavior, an increase in anxiety-like behavior and impairment of object recognition were observed during the fourth week after MPTP lesioning. The behavioral changes were not caused by motor impairment, since the rats had already recovered from MPTP-induced catalepsy before the tests were performed. These findings show that MPTP-induced neuroinflammation and its consequences, for example, microglial activation and cell loss in the hippocampus, may be involved in dopaminergic degeneration-related behavioral deficits and suggest that, in addition to the dopaminergic system, the limbic system may also participate in the pathophysiology of PDD. MPTP-lesioned rats are therefore proposed as a useful tool for assessing the ability of pharmacological agents to prevent recognition deficits in PDD.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 04/2010; 95(2):158-65. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2009.12.020 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration still occur despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While there are many potential reasons for this, there is increasing evidence that such impairment occurs in the absence of a clear cause. Furthermore, there are data that some neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's or an Alzheimer-like illness, are becoming more common in the context of HAART-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. This review will critically examine the evidence underpinning these observations. Potential mechanisms will be discussed with particular emphasis on the effect of ageing and how it overlaps with the effects of HIV disease itself thereby leading to neurodegeneration. The nature of this overlap will then be explored for its potential role in the facilitated expression and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Lastly, there will be a brief discussion of interventions to minimize such neurodegeneration including optimization of HAART for brain entry.Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 06/2009; 4(2):163-74. DOI:10.1007/s11481-008-9143-1 · 3.17 Impact Factor