Using pharmacy data to identify those with chronic conditions in Emilia Romagna, Italy.
ABSTRACT Automated pharmacy data have been used to develop a measure of chronic disease status in the general population. The objectives of this project were to refine and apply a model of chronic disease identification using Italian automated pharmacy data; to describe how this model may identify patterns of morbidity in Emilia Romagna, a large Italian region; and to compare estimated prevalence rates using pharmacy data with those available from a 2000 Emilia Romagna disease surveillance study.
Using the Chronic Disease Score, a list of chronic conditions related to the consumption of drugs under the Italian pharmaceutical dispensing system was created. Clinical review identified medication classes within the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary that were linked to the management of each chronic condition. Algorithms were then tested on pharmaceutical claims data from Emilia Romagna for 2001 to verify the applicability of the classification scheme.
Thirty-one chronic condition drug groups (CCDGs) were identified. Applying the model to the pharmacy data, approximately 1.5 million individuals (37.1%) of the population were identified as having one or more of the 31 CCDGs. The 31 CCDGs accounted for 77% (E556 million) of 2001 pharmaceutical expenditures. Cardiovascular diseases, rheumatological conditions, chronic respiratory illness, gastrointestinal diseases and psychiatric diseases were the most frequent chronic conditions. External validation comparing rates of the diseases found through using pharmacy data with those of a 2000 Emilia Romagna disease surveillance study showed similar prevalence of illness.
Using Italian automated pharmacy data, a measure of population-based chronic disease status was developed. Applying the model to pharmaceutical claims from Emilia Romagna 2001, a large proportion of the population was identified as having chronic conditions. Pharmacy data may be a valuable alternative to survey data to assess the extent to which large populations are affected by chronic conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Quantifying population health is important for public health policy. Since national disease registers recording clinical diagnoses are often not available, pharmacy data were frequently used to identify chronic conditions (CCs) in populations. However, most approaches mapping prescribed drugs to CCs are outdated and unambiguous. The aim of this study was to provide an improved and updated mapping approach to the classification of medications. Furthermore, we aimed to give an overview of the proportions of patients with CCs in Switzerland using this new mapping approach. The database included medical and pharmacy claims data (2011) from patients aged 18 years or older. Based on prescription drug data and using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, patients with CCs were identified by a medical expert review. Proportions of patients with CCs were calculated by sex and age groups. We constructed multiple logistic regression models to assess the association between patient characteristics and having a CC, as well as between risk factors (diabetes, hyperlipidemia) for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD as one of the most prevalent CCs. A total of 22 CCs were identified. In 2011, 62% of the 932[prime]612 subjects enrolled have been prescribed a drug for the treatment of at least one CC. Rheumatologic conditions, CVD and pain were the most frequent CCs. 29% of the persons had CVD, 10% both CVD and hyperlipidemia, 4% CVD and diabetes, and 2% suffered from all of the three conditions. The regression model showed that diabetes and hyperlipidemia were strongly associated with CVD. Using pharmacy claims data, we developed an updated and improved approach for a feasible and efficient measure of patients' chronic disease status. Pharmacy drug data may be a valuable source for measuring population's burden of disease, when clinical data are missing. This approach may contribute to health policy debates about health services sources and risk adjustment modelling.BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):1030. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the methodology used to set up the Reggio Emilia (northern Italy) Diabetes Register. The prevalence estimates on December 31st, 2009 are also provided. The Diabetes Register covers all residents in the Reggio Emilia province. The register was created by deterministic linkage of six routinely collected data sources through a definite algorithm able to ascertain cases and to distinguish type of diabetes and model of care: Hospital Discharge, Drug Dispensation, Biochemistry Laboratory, Disease-specific Exemption, Diabetes Outpatient Clinics, and Mortality databases. Using these data, we estimated crude prevalence on December 31st, 2009 by sex, age groups, and type of diabetes. There were 25,425 ascertained prevalent cases on December 31st, 2009. Drug Dispensation and Exemption databases made the greatest contribution to prevalence. Analyzing overlapping sources, more than 80% of cases were reported by at least two sources. Crude prevalence was 4.8% and 5.9% for the whole population and for people aged 18 years and over, respectively. Males accounted for 53.6%. Type 1 diabetes accounted for 3.8% of cases, while people with Type 2 diabetes were the overriding majority (91.2%), and Diabetes Outpatient Clinics treated 75.4% of people with Type 2 diabetes. The Register is able to quantify the burden of disease, the first step in planning, implementing, and monitoring appropriate interventions. All data sources contributed to completeness and/or accuracy of the Register. Although all cases are identified by deterministic record linkage, manual revision and General Practitioner involvement are still necessary when information is insufficient or conflicting.Diabetes research and clinical practice 12/2013; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multimorbidity is a major challenge for healthcare systems. However, currently, its magnitude and impact in healthcare expenditures is still mostly unknown. To present an overview of the prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by socioeconomic levels in the whole Basque population. We develop a cross-sectional analysis that includes all the inhabitants of the Basque Country (N = 2,262,698). We utilize data from primary health care electronic medical records, hospital admissions, and outpatient care databases, corresponding to a 4 year period. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 52 of the most important and common chronic conditions given in the literature. We also use socioeconomic and demographic variables such as age, sex, individual healthcare cost, and deprivation level. Predicted adjusted costs were obtained by log-gamma regression models. Multimorbidity of chronic diseases was found among 23.61% of the total Basque population and among 66.13% of those older than 65 years. Multimorbid patients account for 63.55% of total healthcare expenditures. Prevalence of multimorbidity is higher in the most deprived areas for all age and sex groups. The annual cost of healthcare per patient generated for any chronic disease depends on the number of coexisting comorbidities, and varies from 637 € for the first pathology in average to 1,657 € for the ninth one. Multimorbidity is very common for the Basque population and its prevalence rises in age, and unfavourable socioeconomic environment. The costs of care for chronic patients with several conditions cannot be described as the sum of their individual pathologies in average. They usually increase dramatically according to the number of comorbidities. Given the ageing population, multimorbidity and its consequences should be taken into account in healthcare policy, the organization of care and medical research.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89787. · 3.73 Impact Factor