Article

Value of body fat mass vs anthropometric obesity indices in the assessment of metabolic risk factors.

Institut für Humanernährung und Lebensmittelkunde, Christian-Albrechts Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
International Journal of Obesity (Impact Factor: 5.22). 04/2006; 30(3):475-83. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803144
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To compare the value of body fat mass (%FM) to indirect measures of general (body mass index (BMI)) and central adiposity (waist circumference (WC); waist-to-height ratio (WC/ht)) for the prediction of overweight- and obesity-related metabolic risk in a study population with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MSX).
BMI, WC, WC/ht, body composition (by air-displacement plethysmography) and metabolic risk factors: triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), uric acid, systolic blood pressure (BPsys), insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 335 adults (191 women, 144 men; mean age 53 +/-13.9 years, prevalence of MSX 30%).
When compared with BMI and WC, %FM showed weaker associations with metabolic risk factors, except for CRP and BPsys in men. In women, HDL-C and HOMA-IR showed the closest correlations with BMI. For all other risk factors, WC or WC/ht were the best predictors in both sexes. Differences in the strength of correlations between an obesity index and different risk factors exceeded the differences observed between all obesity indices within one risk factor. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, WC/ht was the main predictor of metabolic risk in both sexes combined. However, analysis of the area under receiver operating characteristic curves for prediction of the prevalence of >or=2 component traits of the MSX revealed a similar accuracy of all obesity indices.
At the population level, measurement of body FM has no advantage over BMI and WC in the prediction of obesity-related metabolic risk. Although measures of central adiposity (WC, WC/ht) tended to show closer associations with risk factors than measures of general adiposity, the differences were small and depended on the type of risk factor and sex, suggesting an equivalent value of methods.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
62 Views
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although many adiposity indices may be used to predict obesity-related health risks, uncertainty remains over which of them performs best. This study compared the predictive capability of direct and indirect adiposity measures in identifying people at higher risk of metabolic abnormalities. This population-based cross-sectional study recruited 2780 women and 1160 men. Body weight and height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Body fat (and percentage of fat) over the whole body and the trunk were determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Blood pressure, fasting lipid profiles, and glucose and urine acid levels were assessed. In women, the ROC and the multivariate logistic regression analyses both showed that WHtR consistently had the best performance in identifying hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes/IFG, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In men, the ROC analysis showed that WHtR was the best predictor of hypertension, WHtR and WC were equally good predictors of dyslipidemia and MetS, and WHtR was the second-best predictor of hyperuricemia and diabetes/IFG. The multivariate logistic regression also found WHtR to be superior in discriminating between MetS, diabetes/IFG, and dyslipidemia while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension and hyperuricemia in men. The BIA-derived indices were the second-worst predictors for all of the endpoints, and HC was the worst. WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic abnormalities. BMI may be used as an alternative measure of obesity for identifying hypertension in both sexes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70893. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been identified as a harmful fat depot, and sex and race differences in VAT have been reported in white and African Americans. OBJECTIVES: We determined the clinical utility of VAT in the identification of individuals at elevated cardiometabolic risk in white and African American adults and compared the clinical utility with measures obtained by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric measures. DESIGN: The sample included 429 white women, 311 African American women, 406 white men, and 100 African American men who were 18-74 y of age. VAT was measured by using computed tomography, fat mass (FM) and percentage of body fat were measured by using DXA, and waist circumference (WC) and BMI were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the utility of measures in the identification of participants in the upper quintile of a continuous score derived from principal components analysis of fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. RESULTS: The clinical utility of measures varied across sex-by-race groups. In the overall sample, the areas under the curve were significantly higher for VAT and WC in comparison with the other indicators. Identified VAT thresholds were higher in white men (140 cm(2)) and women (141 cm(2)) than in African American men (82 cm(2)) and women (97 cm(2)). CONCLUSIONS: VAT and WC showed greater clinical utility than did other obesity measures. Because of the complexity of measuring VAT, the use of WC is recommended for the identification of adults with elevated cardiometabolic risk factors. The Pennington Center Longitudinal Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00959270.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a key factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We investigated whether obesity classification by BMI and body fat percentage (BF%) influences cardiometabolic profile and dietary responsiveness in 486 MetS subjects (LIPGENE dietary intervention study). Anthropometric measures, markers of inflammation and glucose metabolism, lipid profiles, adhesion molecules, and hemostatic factors were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks of four dietary interventions (high saturated fat (SFA), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA), and two low fat high complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, one supplemented with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs)). About 39 and 87% of subjects classified as normal and overweight by BMI were obese according to their BF%. Individuals classified as obese by BMI (≥30 kg/m(2) ) and BF% (≥25% (men) and ≥35% (women)) (OO, n = 284) had larger waist and hip measurements, higher BMI and were heavier (P < 0.001) than those classified as nonobese by BMI but obese by BF% (NOO, n = 92). OO individuals displayed a more proinflammatory (higher C reactive protein (CRP) and leptin), prothrombotic (higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)), proatherogenic (higher leptin/adiponectin ratio) and more insulin resistant (higher HOMA-IR) metabolic profile relative to the NOO group (P < 0.001). Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were lower post-intervention in NOO individuals compared with OO subjects (P < 0.001). In conclusion, assessing BF% and BMI as part of a metabotype may help to identify individuals at greater cardiometabolic risk than BMI alone.
    Obesity 01/2013; 21(1):E154-61. · 3.92 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
2 Downloads
Available from
Mar 11, 2014