Three genomes differentially contribute to the biosynthesis of benzoxazinones in hexaploid wheat.

Divisions of Applied Biosciences and Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 12/2005; 102(45):16490-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0505156102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) accumulates benzoxazinones (Bxs) as defensive compounds. Previously, we found that five Bx biosynthetic genes, TaBx1-TaBx5, are located on each of the three genomes (A, B, and D) of hexaploid wheat. In this study, we isolated three homoeologous cDNAs of each TaBx gene to estimate the contribution of individual homoeologous TaBx genes to the biosynthesis of Bxs in hexaploid wheat. We analyzed their transcript levels by homoeolog- or genome-specific quantitative RT-PCR and the catalytic properties of their translation products by kinetic analyses using recombinant TaBX enzymes. The three homoeologs were transcribed differentially, and the ratio of the individual homoeologous transcripts to total homoeologous transcripts also varied with the tissue, i.e., shoots or roots, as well as with the developmental stage. Moreover, the translation products of the three homoeologs had different catalytic properties. Some TaBx homoeologs were efficiently transcribed, but the translation products showed only weak enzymatic activities, which inferred their weak contribution to Bx biosynthesis. Considering the transcript levels and the catalytic properties collectively, we concluded that the homoeologs on the B genome generally contributed the most to the Bx biosynthesis in hexaploid wheat, especially in shoots. In tetraploid wheat and the three diploid progenitors of hexaploid wheat, the respective transcript levels of the TaBx homoeologs were similar in ratio to those observed in hexaploid wheat. This result indicates that the genomic bias in the transcription of the TaBx genes in hexaploid wheat originated in the diploid progenitors and has been retained through the polyploidization.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seed dormancy is a mechanism underlying the inability of viable seeds to germinate under optimal environmental conditions. To achieve rapid and uniform germination, wheat and other cereal crops have been selected against dormancy. As a result, most of the modern commercial cultivars have low level of seed dormancy and are susceptible to preharvest sprouting when wet and moist conditions occur prior to harvest. As it causes substantial loss in grain yield and quality, preharvest sprouting is an ever-present major constraint to the production of wheat. The significance of the problem emphasizes the need to incorporate an intermediate level of dormancy into elite wheat cultivars, and this requires detailed dissection of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of seed dormancy and preharvest sprouting. Seed dormancy research in wheat often involves after-ripening, a period of dry storage during which seeds lose dormancy, or comparative analysis of seeds derived from dormant and non-dormant cultivars. The increasing development in wheat genomic resources along with the application of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics approaches in studying wheat seed dormancy have extended our knowledge of the mechanisms acting at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Recent progresses indicate that some of the molecular mechanisms are associated with hormonal pathways, epigenetic regulations, targeted oxidative modifications of seed mRNAs and proteins, redox regulation of seed protein thiols, and modulation of translational activities. Given that preharvest sprouting is closely associated with seed dormancy, these findings will significantly contribute to the designing of efficient strategies for breeding preharvest sprouting tolerant wheat.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 09/2014; 5:458. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2014.00458 · 3.64 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Benzoxazinoids (BXs) are a group of natural chemical compounds with putative pharmacological and health-protecting properties. BXs were formerly identified in and isolated from selected dicot medicinal plants and young cereal plants. Recently, BXs were found to be present in mature cereal grains and bakery products, such that knowledge about the pharmacological properties of BXs, which until now have unknowingly been consumed through the daily bread and breakfast cereals, have come into new focus. This review discusses published results from in vitro studies and a few human and animal model studies on the health effects and pharmacological responses of various BX compounds. Many of these studies have reported antimicrobial, anticancer, reproductive system stimulatory, central nervous system stimulatory, immunoregulatory, and appetite- and weight-reducing effects of BXs and/or BX derivatives. The health benefits of wholegrain intake may be associated with the solitary and/or overlapping biological effects of fibers, lignans, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, BXs, and other bioactive compounds. In the context of BXs as dietary ingredients, further comprehensive investigations are required to understand their biological functions, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, to explore their potential contribution on the health effects associated with wholegrain consumption, and to examine their potential as functional food ingredients.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201400717 · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wheat-rye translocations are widely used in wheat breeding to confer resistance against abiotic and biotic stress. Studying gene expression in wheat-rye translocations is complicated due to the presence of homoeologous genes in hexaploid wheat and high levels of synteny between wheat and rye chromatin. To distinguish transcripts expressed from each of the three wheat genomes and those from rye chromatin, genomic probes generated from diploid progenitors of wheat and rye were synthesized on a custom array. A total of 407 transcripts showed homoeologous genome (‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘D’ genome)- or rye genome (‘R’)-specific differential expression, based on unequal values of probe hybridization. In a 2BS.2RL wheat-rye translocation, thirteen of the 407 transcripts showed preferential expressions from rye chromatin. As well as quantifying variation in homoeologous transcript in wheat-rye translocations, this study also provides a potential aid to examine the contribution of the subgenomes to complex allohexapolyploids.
    Genes & Genetic Systems 02/2015; 89(4):159-168. DOI:10.1266/ggs.89.159 · 1.13 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014