Assessment of the qualitative variation in bacterial microflora among compartments of the intestinal tract of dogs by use of a molecular fingerprinting technique.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the qualitative variation in bacterial microflora among compartments of the intestinal tract of dogs by use of a molecular fingerprinting technique.
14 dogs (similarly housed and fed identical diets).
Samples of intestinal contents were collected from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum of each dog. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the samples, and the variable V6 to V8 region of 16S ribosomal DNA (gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA) was amplified by use of universal bacterial primers; polymerase chain reaction amplicons were separated via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Similarity indices of DGGE banding patterns were used to assess variation in the bacterial microflora among different compartments of the intestine within and among dogs. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the Simpson diversity index, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, and evenness.
DGGE profiles indicated marked differences in bacterial composition of intestinal compartments among dogs (range of similarity, 25.6% to 36.6%) and considerable variation among compartments within individual dogs (range of similarity, 36.7% to 579%). Similarities between neighboring intestinal compartments were significantly greater than those between non-neighboring compartments. Diversity indices for the colon and rectum were significantly higher than those of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Results indicated that the different intestinal compartments of individual dogs appear to host different bacterial populations, and these compartmental populations vary among dogs. In dogs, fecal sample analysis may not yield accurate information regarding the composition of bacterial populations in compartments of the gastrointestinal tract.
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ABSTRACT: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been reported to occur commonly in dogs with signs of chronic intestinal disease. There are usually few intestinal histological changes, and it is uncertain to what extent bacteria cause mucosal damage. The aim of this study was to apply a differential sugar absorption test for intestinal permeability and function to the objective assessment of intestinal damage in dogs with SIBO. Studies were performed on 63 dogs with signs of chronic small and, or, large bowel disease, in which SIBO (greater than 10(5) total or greater than 10(4) anaerobic colony forming units/ml) was diagnosed by quantitative culture of duodenal juice obtained endoscopically. None of the dogs had evidence of intestinal pathogens, parasites, systemic disease or pancreatic insufficiency. differential sugar absorption was performed by determining the ratios of urinary recoveries of lactulose/rhamnose (L/R ratio, which reflects permeability) and D-xylose/3-O-methylglucose (X/G ratio, which reflects intestinal absorptive function) following oral administration. Dogs with SIBO comprised 28 different breeds, including 13 German shepherd dogs. SIBO was aerobic in 18/63 dogs (29 per cent), and anaerobic in 45/63 (71 per cent). Histological examination of duodenal biopsies showed no abnormalities in 75 per cent, and mild to moderate lymphocytic infiltrates in 25 per cent of the dogs. The L/R ratio was increased (greater than 0.12) in 52 per cent, and the X/G ratio reduced (less than 0.60) in 33 per cent of the dogs. Differential sugar absorption was repeated in 11 dogs after their four weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. The L/R ratio declined in all 11 dogs (mean +/- SD pre: 0.24 +/- 0.14; post: 0.16 +/- 0.11; P < 0.05), but changes in the X/G ratio were more variable. These findings show that SIBO is commonly associated with mucosal damage not detected on histological examination of intestinal biopsies, and that changes in intestinal permeability following oral antibiotics may be used to monitor response to treatment.Journal of Small Animal Practice 10/1996; 37(9):428-34. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diversity and stability of the fecal bacterial microbiota in weaning pigs was studied after introduction of an exogenous Lactobacillus reuteri strain, MM53, using a combination of cultivation and techniques based on genes encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA). Piglets (n = 9) were assigned to three treatment groups (control, daily dosed, and 4th-day dosed), and fresh fecal samples were collected daily. Dosed animals received 2.5 x 10(10) CFU of antibiotic-resistant L. reuteri MM53 daily or every 4th day. Mean Lactobacillus counts for the three groups ranged from 1 x 10(9) to 4 x 10(9) CFU/g of feces. Enumeration of strain L. reuteri MM53 on MRS agar (Difco) plates containing streptomycin and rifampin showed that the introduced strain fluctuated between 8 x 10(3) and 5 x 10(6) CFU/g of feces in the two dosed groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments, with primers specific for variable regions 1 and 3 (V1 and V3), was used to profile complexity of fecal bacterial populations. Analysis of DGGE banding profiles indicated that each individual maintained a unique fecal bacterial population that was stable over time, suggesting a strong host influence. In addition, individual DGGE patterns could be separated into distinct time-dependent clusters. Primers designed specifically to restrict DGGE analysis to a select group of lactobacilli allowed examination of interspecies relationships and abundance. Based on relative band migration distance and sequence determination, L. reuteri was distinguishable within the V1 region 16S rDNA gene patterns. Daily fluctuations in specific bands within these profiles were observed, which revealed an antagonistic relationship between L. reuteri MM53 (band V1-3) and another indigenous Lactobacillus assemblage (band V1-6).Applied and Environmental Microbiology 12/2000; 66(11):4705-14. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether host, compartment, or environmental specific factors play an important role in the establishment of the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens during growth. This objective was addressed using a 16S rDNA approach. PCR-amplicons from the V6 to V8 regions of the 16S rDNA of intestinal samples were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The number of bands in all intestinal compartments increased when broilers grew older, indicating that the dominant bacterial community becomes more complex when chickens age. Each chicken had a unique banding pattern for all locations in the intestinal tract, irrespective of the age of chickens. This suggests that host-related factors affect the establishment of the dominant bacterial community. Banding patterns of intestinal compartments within one chicken were different from each other for broilers older than 4 days, except for both ceca which were highly similar. In 4-day-old broilers, banding patterns from crop, duodenum, and ileum were very similar. We conclude that (unknown) host specific factors play an important role in the development of the intestinal bacterial community in each broiler chicken. Furthermore, compartment-specific factors play an important role in the bacterial development of each intestinal compartment within one chicken.Microbial Ecology 11/2002; 44(3):286-93. · 3.28 Impact Factor