Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration

Swedish Herbal Institute, Viktor Rydbergsgatan 10, SE-411 32 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.66). 10/2005; 19(10):819-38. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1751
Source: PubMed


Plant adaptogens are compounds that increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors. The beneficial effects of multi-dose administration of adaptogens are mainly associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a part of the stress-system that is believed to play a primary role in the reactions of the body to repeated stress and adaptation. In contrast, the single dose application of adaptogens is important in situations that require a rapid response to tension or to a stressful situation. In this case, the effects of the adaptogens are associated with another part of the stress-system, namely, the sympatho-adrenal-system (SAS), that provides a rapid response mechanism mainly to control the acute reaction of the organism to a stressor. This review focuses primarily on the SAS-mediated stimulating effects of single doses of adaptogens derived from Rhodiola rosea, Schizandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus. The use of these drugs typically generates no side effects, unlike traditional stimulants that possess addiction, tolerance and abuse potential, produce a negative effect on sleep structure, and cause rebound hypersomnolence or 'come down' effects. Furthermore, single administration of these adaptogens effectively increases mental performance and physical working capacity in humans. R. rosea is the most active of the three plant adaptogens producing, within 30 min of administration, a stimulating effect that continues for at least 4-6 h. The active principles of the three plants that exhibit single dose stimulating effects are glycosides of phenylpropane- and phenylethane-based phenolic compounds such as salidroside, rosavin, syringin and triandrin, the latter being the most active.

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    • "Salidroside (SAL) is an active ingredient of the root of Rhodiola rosea, a well-known herb used to relieve high altitude sickness [28]. SAL has also been used to enhance both the physical and mental performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Salidroside (SAL) is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism of the protective effect of SAL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with SAL significantly reduced the cytotoxicity brought by H2O2. Functional studies on the rat aortas found that SAL rescued the endothelium-dependent relaxation and reduced superoxide anion (O2(∙-)) production induced by H2O2. Meanwhile, SAL pretreatment inhibited H2O2-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. The underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of H2O2-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Akt, as well as the redox sensitive transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF- κ B). SAL also increased mitochondrial mass and upregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1 α ), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in the endothelial cells. H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ ψ m) and ATP production, was rescued by SAL pretreatment. Taken together, these findings implicate that SAL could protect endothelium against H2O2-induced injury via promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function, thus preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 04/2014; 2014(12):904834. DOI:10.1155/2014/904834 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea, is a phenylpropanoid glycoside. Several experimental and clinical studies of salidroside have provided evidence for its pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation [7], antioxidation [8], antistress, antihypoxia, anticancer, and enhancing immune effects [9] [10] [11]. One recent study demonstrated that salidroside was an effective suppressor of inflammation by focusing on the prophylaxis effect of mastitis [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an "adaptogen." This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated I κ B α and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF- κ B partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice.
    Mediators of Inflammation 04/2014; 2014:314081. DOI:10.1155/2014/314081 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Rhodiola rosea is a traditional Chinese medicine and has long been used as an adaptogen for enhancing the body’s resistance to fatigue, stimulating the nervous system and preventing high altitude sickness (6). Salidroside, a phenol glycoside compound extracted from Rhodiola rosea, is a potent antioxidant. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is important in carcinogenesis and metastasis. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., shows potent antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of salidroside in cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. The human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, was incubated with various concentrations of salidroside (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 µg/ml) and cell proliferation was detected by 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to determine the cell cycle by flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate and PI double‑staining, and tumor invasion was detected by Boyden chamber invasion assay. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of EMT markers, Snail and phospho‑p38. The results showed that salidroside significantly reduced the proliferation of A549 cells, inhibited cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis. Salidroside inhibited transforming growth factor‑β‑induced tumor invasion and suppressed the protein expression of Snail. As an antioxidant, salidroside inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in a dose‑dependent manner in A549 cells, and depletion of intracellular ROS by vitamin C suppressed apoptosis by salidroside treatment. Salidroside was also found to inhibit the expression of phospho‑p38 in A549 cells. In conclusion, salidroside inhibits cell proliferation, the cell cycle and metastasis and induces apoptosis, which may be due to its interference in the intracellular ROS generation, thereby, downregulating the ROS‑phospho‑p38 signaling pathway.
    Oncology letters 04/2014; 7(4):1159-1164. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.1863 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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