Article

Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration

Swedish Herbal Institute, Viktor Rydbergsgatan 10, SE-411 32 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.4). 10/2005; 19(10):819-38. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1751
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Plant adaptogens are compounds that increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors. The beneficial effects of multi-dose administration of adaptogens are mainly associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a part of the stress-system that is believed to play a primary role in the reactions of the body to repeated stress and adaptation. In contrast, the single dose application of adaptogens is important in situations that require a rapid response to tension or to a stressful situation. In this case, the effects of the adaptogens are associated with another part of the stress-system, namely, the sympatho-adrenal-system (SAS), that provides a rapid response mechanism mainly to control the acute reaction of the organism to a stressor. This review focuses primarily on the SAS-mediated stimulating effects of single doses of adaptogens derived from Rhodiola rosea, Schizandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus. The use of these drugs typically generates no side effects, unlike traditional stimulants that possess addiction, tolerance and abuse potential, produce a negative effect on sleep structure, and cause rebound hypersomnolence or 'come down' effects. Furthermore, single administration of these adaptogens effectively increases mental performance and physical working capacity in humans. R. rosea is the most active of the three plant adaptogens producing, within 30 min of administration, a stimulating effect that continues for at least 4-6 h. The active principles of the three plants that exhibit single dose stimulating effects are glycosides of phenylpropane- and phenylethane-based phenolic compounds such as salidroside, rosavin, syringin and triandrin, the latter being the most active.

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    • "Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea, is a phenylpropanoid glycoside. Several experimental and clinical studies of salidroside have provided evidence for its pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation [7], antioxidation [8], antistress, antihypoxia, anticancer, and enhancing immune effects [9] [10] [11]. One recent study demonstrated that salidroside was an effective suppressor of inflammation by focusing on the prophylaxis effect of mastitis [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an "adaptogen." This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated I κ B α and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF- κ B partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice.
    Mediators of Inflammation 04/2014; 2014:314081. DOI:10.1155/2014/314081 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and increased risk of accidents due to motor impairment are limitations to their continued use (Haro et al. 2003). Chronic treatment with adaptogens appears to have a stress-protective effect and to lead to a long-lasting state of nonspecific resistance, resulting from adaptive changes of the organism (Panossian and Wagner 2005). Further experiments are necessary to typify POEE as an adaptogen, and evaluate its benefits in stress management strategies. "
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    • "The main compounds are eleutherosides (eleutheroside A, B, B1, C, D, E, E1, I, K, L, and M), of which eleutheroside E {(-)-syringaresinol 4,4 " -O-β–Ddiglucoside} , E1 {(+)-syringaresinol 4-O-β–D-glucoside} and B (syringin 4-O-β–D-glucoside) are in a majority. Eleutherococcus not only synthesizes lignans, such as syringin, syringaresinol and sesamin, but also accumulates lignan precursors, such as hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid and coniferyl aldehyde [5] [7] [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The content of phenols (TPC), and the antioxidative, antileukemic and anti-MMPs properties of Eleutherococcus spp. cultivated in Poland are reported. The highest TPC was found in the spring leaves (20.3 - 37.2 mg/g). The spring leaves and roots of E. divaricatus had the strongest anti-DPPH activity (EC50 1.2 and 1.2 mg/mL), whereas the greatest ability of iron (II) chelating was shown by autumn leaves of E. setchuensis (EC50 0.3 mg/mL), and the ethanolic extract of E. gracilistylus roots showed the strongest lipid antiperoxidation activity (EC50 0.7 mg/mL). The highest number of apoptotic cells was observed in the Jurkat 45 cell line after treatment with the ethanolic extract of E. sessiliflorus roots (27%). Only the chloroform extracts of roots of E. gracilistylus and E. divaricatus showed the inhibitory activity against MMPs. Most of the studied species have a significant biological activity that is probably due to the presence of phenols. To the best of our knowledge, neither detailed phytochemical nor biological studies have been performed for most of the investigated species.
    Natural product communications 11/2012; 7(11):1483-6. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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