Self-efficacy and motivation to quit during participation in a smoking cessation program

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.63). 02/2005; 12(4):266-72. DOI: 10.1207/s15327558ijbm1204_7
Source: PubMed


The associations between failure to quit and posttreatment self-efficacy and motivation were examined among 600 African American smokers enrolled in a randomized trial testing the efficacy of bupropion for smoking cessation. Participants also received brief motivational counseling and were followed for 6 months. Baseline levels of self-efficacy and motivation for all participants were high (8.2 and 8.5 on a 10-point scale, respectively). Longitudinal analyses indicated that smokers who failed to quit were less likely than quitters to report high self-efficacy and motivation from posttreatment to follow-up. However, examination of mean self-efficacy and motivation scores at posttreatment and follow-up revealed that smokers continued to sustain high self-efficacy and motivation. Mean self-efficacy and motivation scores differed by less than 1 point from baseline levels, even though the majority of participants failed to quit smoking. Results suggest that unsuccessful participation in a smoking cessation program does not meaningfully reduce smokers' self-efficacy and motivation to quit.

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    • "The present study aimed to examine the role of motivation to quit as a predictor of short-term and long-term smoking cessation and as a predictor of abstinence maintenance at 6 month follow-up among a Spanish sample of smokers who received an evidence-based psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Based on the results found in previous studies (Boardman et al., 2005; Heppner et al., 2011; Jardin & Carpenter, 2012; Williams et al., 2002) we hypothesized that higher levels of motivation to quit would predict smoking cessation at the end of the treatment and at 6 month follow-up, and maintenance of smoking abstinence at 6 month follow-up. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. Method: The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Results: Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (p<.001). Conclusions: Motivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods.
    Addictive behaviors 02/2016; 53:40-45. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.09.017 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "The Interactive Learning for Smokers (ILS) intervention combined elements of the American Lung Association’s Freedom from Smoking program [70] and The Mayo Clinic’s Nicotine Dependence Center program [71] and was constructed to help participants develop individualized smoking cessation strategies to manage relapse challenges related to smoking triggers, social situations, strong emotions, stressful situations, relapse-related thoughts, urges and withdrawal symptoms–areas also targeted in MTS. ILS participants were asked to practice thirty minutes of silent non-directed walking per day throughout the intervention, and to further match MTS, were instructed to use non-directed walking for relaxation, stress reduction and as a strategy for managing urges and withdrawal symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report results of a pilot study designed to test a novel smoking cessation intervention, Mindfulness Training for Smokers (MTS), in smokers age 18-29 years with regular episodes of binge drinking. Mindfulness is a cognitive skill of applying close moment-to-moment attention to experience with a mental posture of acceptance and non-reactivity. The MTS intervention consisted of six weekly classes that provided instruction on how to use mindfulness to manage known precursors of smoking relapse including smoking triggers, strong emotions, stressful situations, addictive thoughts, urges, and withdrawal symptoms. The MTS intervention was compared to Interactive Learning for Smokers (ILS), a time/intensity matched control group using daily non-directed walking instead of mindfulness meditation. Recruitment was conducted primarily at local technical colleges. Primary outcome measures included biochemically-confirmed smoking abstinence and reduction in alcohol use at the end of treatment (2-weeks post-quit attempt). The sample (N = 55) was 70.9% male, with a mean age of 21.9 years, and a mean of 11.76 alcoholic drinks consumed per week. Intent-to-treat analysis showed biochemically-confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 2-weeks post-quit for MTS = 20.0% and ILS = 4.0%, p = .08. Secondary analysis showed number of drinks per week in the first 2-weeks post-quit correlated with smoking relapse at 2-weeks post-quit (p < .01). This pilot study demonstrated that Mindfulness Training for Smokers shows promise for smoking cessation and alcohol use reduction in treating young adult smokers with alcohol abuse. Results suggest the need for a study with larger sample size and methods that reduce attrition.Trial registration: NCT01679236.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2013; 13(1):215. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-215 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Three published studies have examined associations between measures of motivation to quit and quit attempts prospectively in population samples in the absence of interventions (Borland et al., 2010; West et al., 2001; Zhou et al., 2009). Many other studies have examined the predictive validity of measures of motivation to stop in clinical samples or in the context of interventions studies (for example: Biener and Abrams, 1991; Boardman et al., 2005; Crittenden et al., 1994; Hughes et al., 2005; Ong et al., 2005; Sciamanna et al., 2000). Others have examined the predictive value of measures of " stage of change " which incorporates past quitting behavior and so conflates motivation and previous action (Cancer Prevention Research Center, 2012; DiClemente et al., 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Many different measures of motivation to stop smoking exist but it would be desirable to have a brief version that is standard for use in population surveys and for evaluations of interventions to promote cessation. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity and accuracy of the single-item Motivation To Stop Scale (MTSS). Methods: This study is part of the "Smoking Toolkit Study;" a monthly survey of representative samples of the English population. We used data from 2483 respondents to the surveys from November 2008 to January 2011, who were smokers, used the MTSS, and were followed up 6 months later to provide information on quit attempts since baseline. The MTSS consists of one item with seven response categories ranging from 1 (lowest) to level 7 (highest level of motivation to stop smoking). Results: A total of 692 smokers (27.9% (95% CI=26.1-29.6)) made an attempt to quit smoking between baseline and 6-month follow-up. The odds of quit attempts increased linearly with increasing level of motivation at baseline (p<0.001) and were 6.8 (95% CI=4.7-9.9) times higher for the highest level of motivation compared with the lowest. The accuracy of the MTSS for discriminating between smokers who did and did not attempt to quit was ROC(AUC)=0.67 (95% CI=0.65-0.70). Conclusions: The MTSS provides strong and accurate prediction of quit attempts and is a candidate for a standard single-item measure of motivation to stop smoking. Further research should assess the external validity of this measure in different smoking populations.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 08/2012; 128(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.07.012 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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