Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction.
ABSTRACT Published data, both on nocturnal melatonin suppression in humans and on widely accepted retinal structure and function, suggest that spectral opponency plays a role in human circadian phototransduction. We directly test subadditivity, implied by spectral opponency, in human circadian phototransduction in response to nearly monochromatic and to polychromatic light.
Adult male human subjects were exposed for 60 minutes to two intensities each of two lighting conditions, during nighttime experimental sessions. One condition consisted of light from mercury vapor lamps (450 and 1050 lx), and one condition consisted of light from these lamps filtered such that only the spectral line from this lamp at 436 nm was presented to subjects (7.5 and 15 lx).
Melatonin suppression from the filtered illumination at 436 nm alone was greater than mercury lamp illumination (containing energy at 436 nm in addition to other wavelengths), even when the sources exposed subjects' retinae to equal amounts of irradiance at 436 nm.
This direct test of subadditivity, together with evidence from neuroanatomy, supports the inference that spectral opponency is a fundamental characteristic of human circadian phototransduction.
- SourceAvailable from: Tomoaki Kozaki[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, 12 healthy males were exposed to various light conditions (2300K, 3000K, 5000K and dim) for 1.5h at midnight. The conditions of 3000K and 5000K were created by commercial fluorescent lamps. The light at 2300K was achieved by fitting a 3000K fluorescent lamp with a special filter that absorbed short-wavelength light. The vertical illuminance level was kept at 200lx. Saliva samples were taken before and after the light exposure. The light at 5000K suppressed melatonin secretion acutely. The 2300K lamp condition appeared to have no effect on melatonin secretion as well as the dim condition, while melatonin secretion was measurably suppressed by the light at 3000K.Neuroscience Letters 08/2008; 439(3):256-9. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.05.035 · 2.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a growing interest in the role that light plays on nocturnal melatonin production and, perhaps thereby, the incidence of breast cancer in modern societies. The direct causal relationships in this logical chain have not, however, been fully established and the weakest link is an inability to quantitatively specify architectural lighting as a stimulus for the circadian system. The purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to this weakness. We reviewed the literature on the relationship between melatonin, light at night, and cancer risk in humans and tumor growth in animals. More specifically, we focused on the impact of light on nocturnal melatonin suppression in humans and on the applicability of these data to women in real-life situations. Photometric measurement data from the lighted environment of women at work and at home is also reported. The literature review and measurement data demonstrate that more quantitative knowledge is needed about circadian light exposures actually experienced by women and girls in modern societies. Without such quantitative knowledge, limited insights can be gained about the causal relationship between melatonin and the etiology of breast cancer from epidemiological studies and from parametric studies using animal models.Journal of Carcinogenesis 02/2006; 5:20. DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-5-20
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Forty subjects participated in a study to test the accuracy of a recent model of human circadian phototransduction for predicting the relative effectiveness of two polychromatic light sources at suppressing nocturnal melatonin. Brief exposures to four different light levels (30, 100, 300 and 1000 photopic lux at the cornea) and two different "white" lamp spectra (4100 and 8000 K) were used. Results suggest that the model can properly order the relative magnitudes of the two circadian stimuli, but that nocturnal melatonin suppression follows a rate-limited response to light that cannot be predicted from the magnitude of the suppressing light stimulus alone. Some practical implications of these results are discussed.Neuroscience Letters 11/2006; 406(3):293-7. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2006.07.069 · 2.06 Impact Factor