This review reports on the range of clinical phenotypes that are caused by mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) gene. The basis of genotype-phenotype correlation in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is discussed, with regard to expression of the WAS protein (WASp) and of the effects of WASP mutations on WASp function. Advances in preclinical models of gene therapy for WAS are presented.
Two recent studies have supported genotype-phenotype correlation in WAS and in related X-linked thrombocytopenia. Expression of the WASp was found to be the best predictor of clinical phenotype. Investigation of autoimmune manifestations associated with WAS has shown that autoimmune hemolytic anemia and elevated serum IgM associate with a more severe clinical course. Finally, while results of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for WAS continue to improve, several studies have shown the potential benefit of novel therapeutic approaches based on gene transfer. In particular, use of lentiviral vector-driven expression of the WASP gene under autologous promoter sequences has been found to result in increased targeting of hematopoietic stem cells, higher levels of WASp expression, and improved reconstitution of immune function.
Availability of tools that allow analysis of WASp expression has provided evidence for a genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with WASP gene defects. Protein expression is an important prognostic indicator. The molecular and cellular abnormalities of WAS-associated defects are being identified, and significant advances in vector-mediated gene transfer have opened possibilities for the treatment of WAS based on gene therapy.
"Furthermore, studies with WAS KO mice have demonstrated that gene therapy allows safe and long-term restoration of WASp expression and functionality in multiple immune cell lineages (Blundell et al. 2008; Charrier et al. 2005; Dupre et al. 2006; Frecha et al. 2008; Klein et al. 2003; Martin et al. 2005; Strom et al. 2003b). Gene therapy trials in human patients have recently been initiated (Notarangelo et al. 2005; Ochs and Thrasher 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for many aspects of correct and cooperative functioning of immune cells, such as migration, antigen uptake and cell activation. The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is an important regulator of actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and lack of this protein results in impaired immune function. This review discusses recent new insights of the role of WASp at molecular and cellular level and evaluates how WASp deficiency affects important immunological features and how defective immune cell function contributes to compromised host defence.
"Patients of WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome) (Notarangelo et al., 2005) have mutations in this same region of the gene. In Fig. 4C, the cortical actin visualized by rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin was scarce in wsp1-318, but isometric actin localization was seen in wild-type and in end4-507 cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transition from proliferation to quiescence brings about extensive changes in cellular behavior and structure. However, the genes that are crucial for establishing and/or maintaining quiescence are largely unknown. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an excellent model in which to study this problem, because it becomes quiescent under nitrogen starvation. Here, we characterize 610 temperature-sensitive mutants, and identify 33 genes that are required for entry into and maintenance of quiescence. These genes cover a broad range of cellular functions in the cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus. They encode proteins for stress-responsive and cell-cycle kinase signaling pathways, for actin-bound and osmo-controlling endosome formation, for RNA transcription, splicing and ribosome biogenesis, for chromatin silencing, for biosynthesis of lipids and ATP, for cell-wall and membrane morphogenesis, and for protein trafficking and vesicle fusion. We specifically highlight Fcp1, a CTD phosphatase of RNA polymerase II, which differentially affects the transcription of genes that are involved in quiescence and proliferation. We propose that the transcriptional role of Fcp1 is central in differentiating quiescence from proliferation.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.