Mechanisms of disease: Insights into the emerging role of signal transducers and activators of transcription in cancer.
ABSTRACT Members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway, which were originally identified as key components linking cytokine signals to transcriptional events in cells, have recently been demonstrated to have a major role in cancer. They are cytoplasmic proteins that form functional dimers with each other when activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Activated STAT proteins translocate to the nucleus to regulate expression of genes by binding to specific elements within gene promoters. Constitutive activation of the STAT family members Stat3 and Stat5, and/or loss of Stat1 signaling, is found in a large group of diverse tumors. Increasing evidence demonstrates that STAT proteins can regulate many pathways important in oncogenesis including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and tumor-cell evasion of the immune system. Based on these findings, a growing effort is underway to target STAT proteins directly and indirectly for cancer therapy. This review will highlight STAT signaling pathways, STAT target genes involved in cancer, evidence for STAT activation in human cancers, and therapeutic strategies to target STAT molecules for anticancer therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Stat3 plays diverse roles in biological processes including cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. Very little is known regarding its activation and function in the lung during acute inflammation. We now show that Stat3 activation was triggered in lungs and in alveolar macrophages after intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes in rats. Low levels of constitutive Stat3 were observed in normal rat lungs as determined by the EMSA. Stat3 activity in whole lung extracts increased 2 h after initiation of IgG immune complex deposition, reaching maximal levels by 4 h, whereas Stat3 activation was found in alveolar macrophages as early as 30 min after onset of injury. Expression and activation of Stat3 mRNA, protein, and protein phosphorylation was accompanied by increased gene expression of IL-6, IL-10, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in whole lung tissues. Both Tyr(705) and Ser(727) phosphorylation were involved in Stat3 activation as assessed in whole lung extracts. C5a (complement 5, fragment a) per se can induce phosphorylation of Ser(727) of Stat3. In vivo, Stat3 activation was dramatically suppressed by depletion of neutrophils or lung macrophages, resulting in reduced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in whole lung tissues. Using blocking Abs to IL-6, IL-10, and C5a, Stat3 activation induced by IgG immune complexes was markedly diminished. These data suggest in the lung injury model used that activation of Stat3 in lungs is macrophage dependent and neutrophil dependent. IL-6, IL-10, and C5a contribute to Stat3 activation in inflamed rat lung.The Journal of Immunology 07/2004; 172(12):7703-12. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The STAT1 transcription factor is activated in response to many cytokines and growth factors. To study the requirement for STAT1 in vivo, we disrupted the Stat1 gene in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in mice. Stat1(-1-)ES cells were unresponsive to interferon (IFN), but retained responsiveness to leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and remained LIF dependent for undifferentiated growth. Stat1(-1-1) animals were born at normal frequencies and displayed no gross developmental defects. However, these animals failed to thrive and were extremely susceptible to viral disease. Cells and tissues from Stat1(-1-) mice were unresponsive to IFN, but remained responsive to all other cytokines tested. Thus, STAT1 appears to be specific for IFN pathways that are essential for viability in the face of otherwise innocuous pathogens.Cell 03/1996; 84(3):443-50. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac exerts a significant antineoplastic effect on several types of human cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa). Because constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) has been linked to carcinogenesis of various tumors including head and neck SCCa, we studied whether sulindac treatment affects the Stat3 signaling pathway in oral SCCa cells. Western blot experiments showed that short-term treatment of cells with sulindac resulted in a large reduction of phosphorylated Stat3, without significantly affecting Stat3 protein levels. In contrast, 3 days of sulindac treatment eliminated both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated Stat3 protein levels. Also, sulindac treatment exerted a significant time-dependent cell growth-inhibitory effect on oral SCCa cells under the same conditions shown to induce Stat3 down-modulation. The sulfone metabolite of sulindac, which lacks cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity, did not affect either Stat3 expression or Stat3 phosphorylation. Antisense oligonucleotide treatment against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma did not attenuate the ability of sulindac to down-regulate Stat3. Our results suggest that down-modulation of Stat3 can be induced by sulindac treatment, thus possibly contributing to the antineoplastic effect of this drug.Cancer Research 03/2002; 62(4):1004-7. · 8.65 Impact Factor