Nova-Institut, Goldenbergstrasse 2, D-50354 Hürth, Germany.
Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders 11/2005; 4(5):507-30. DOI: 10.2174/156800705774322111
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since the discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system, research into the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of cannabinoids has steadily increased. Two subtypes of G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB(1) and CB(1), have been cloned and several putative endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) have been detected during the past 15 years. The main endocannabinoids are arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), derivatives of arachidonic acid, that are produced "on demand" by cleavage of membrane lipid precursors. Besides phytocannabinoids of the cannabis plant, modulators of the cannabinoid system comprise synthetic agonists and antagonists at the CB receptors and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues, including immune system, reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts, sympathetic ganglia, endocrine glands, arteries, lung and heart. There is evidence for some non-receptor dependent mechanisms of cannabinoids and for endocannabinoid effects mediated by vanilloid receptors. Properties of CB receptor agonists that are of therapeutic interest include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, antiallergic effects, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects. The current main focus of clinical research is their efficacy in chronic pain and neurological disorders. CB receptor antagonists are under investigation for medical use in obesity and nicotine addiction. Additional potential was proposed for the treatment of alcohol and heroine dependency, schizophrenia, conditions with lowered blood pressure, Parkinson's disease and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Franjo Grotenhermen, Apr 08, 2014
24 Reads
    • "The plant Cannabis sativa grows in temperate and tropical climates. Its seeds, flowering tops, leaves and stalks contain a cocktail of chemicals termed cannabinoids that causes psychoactive manifestations following ingestion or inhalation of smoke.[2] Though the special significance of this plant was first recorded in allopathic medical literature at the turn of the last century, the oriental physicians have been using it as a medicinal plant for many millennia.[3] Dried leaves and flowering tops (grass, marijuana, joint, weed, ganja, hashish), resinous extracts from flowering tops and cannabis oil (hash oil) are different formulations with psychoactive chemicals that are used for medicinal and recreational purposes.[4] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cannabis is the most widely used illegitimate substance in the world, and the number of users has increased by 10% over the last decade worldwide. Therefore, it is important to review the evidence on psychoactive properties of cannabis and its possible association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). We searched MEDLINE with the key words cannabis and schizophrenia. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999-2009). Bibliographies of cited literature were also searched. Data sources included reviews published in core clinical journals, cohort studies, interventional studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional analyses and epidemiological data. Results are discussed under 2 topics. Firstly, evidence related to biochemical functioning of cannabinoids and their relationship to endocannabinoid system is discussed briefly. Secondly, the evidence from clinical studies on cannabis, psychosis proneness and SSD are discussed in detail. The discussion is structured to fit in the evidence from results section to 3 plausible hypotheses on cannabis use and SSD. The evidence for and against each hypothesis is discussed. Despite new evidence, the exact relationship between cannabis and SSD is unclear. There is no firm evidence that cannabis causes SSD. The evidence for the argument that schizophrenic patients are attracted to cannabis is also not strong. The most plausible explanation is that cannabis use and psychosis proneness may have synergistic effects in a vulnerable minority.
    Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 07/2009; 31(2):62-70. DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.63575
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Obesity is an important and chronic disease. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it associates with many factor and it needs to medical treatment. Important risk factors of obesity are feeding habits, sexualty (Female), age, education, marriage, labor number and hereditary. Obesity, may be originated from hereditary factors and it progresses very fastly in developed and developing countries. More than 30 % percent of population is obese in Turkey (male %7,9 female %23,4). It is known that obesity closely related with many chronic disorders. Thus, well knowledge about effects of obesity and its alternative treatments is important for determining ideal treatment of obesity and its complications. Aim of this review to represent effects, causing obesity and its treatment options together.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current drug therapies for overactive bladder (OAB) can produce variable outcomes and bothersome side effects, resulting in poor compliance. In patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity and urge incontinence, evidence of a beneficial effect with oral cannabinoids is emerging. The rationale for their use was the discovery of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), with CB1 receptors at various sites, including the brain and bladder, although the distribution of CB2 receptors is more limited. Cannabinoids also bind to vanilloid receptors, which have been the basis for intravesical therapies, such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin. However, the use of capsaicin is limited by its pungency, whereas resiniferatoxin is limited by difficulties in delivery. Cannabinoids appear to work at several levels centrally and peripherally on detrusor smooth muscle, suggesting that they might produce similar effects in patients with neurogenic and nonneurogenic OAB. Large clinical trials of cannabinoids without psychotropic effects are required.
    Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports 12/2008; 3(4):224-229. DOI:10.1007/s11884-008-0033-4
Show more