Response inhibition after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children: impairment and recovery.
ABSTRACT Children who experience traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show cognitive impairments postinjury, some of which recover over time. We examined the recovery of motor response inhibition immediately following TBI and over 2 years. We assessed the role of injury severity, age at injury, and lesion characteristics on initial impairment and recovery while considering the role of pre-injury psychiatric disorder. Participants were 136 children with TBI aged 5-16 years. Latency of motor response inhibition was measured with the stop-signal task within 1 month of the injury and again at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The performance of the TBI participants at each measurement occasion was standardized with 117 children of similar age, but without injury. Residualized latency scores were calculated. Growth curve analyses showed an initial impairment in response inhibition and improvement over the 2 years following injury. Younger TBI patients were initially more impaired although they exhibited greater recovery of response inhibition than did older TBI patients. Longer duration of coma, but not reactivity of pupils or Glasgow Coma Scale score, predicted initial deficit. Lesion characteristics or pre-injury attention deficit hyperactivity disorder did not predict initial impairment or recovery. Replication with longitudinal testing of a comparison group of children sustaining extracranial injury is necessary to confirm our findings.
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ABSTRACT: At every point in the lifespan, the brain balances malleable processes representing neural plasticity that promote change with homeostatic processes that promote stability. Whether a child develops typically or with brain injury, his or her neural and behavioral outcome is constructed through transactions between plastic and homeostatic processes and the environment. In clinical research with children in whom the developing brain has been malformed or injured, behavioral outcomes provide an index of the result of plasticity, homeostasis, and environmental transactions. When should we assess outcome in relation to age at brain insult, time since brain insult, and age of the child at testing? What should we measure? Functions involving reacting to the past and predicting the future, as well as social-affective skills, are important. How should we assess outcome? Information from performance variability, direct measures and informants, overt and covert measures, and laboratory and ecological measures should be considered. In whom are we assessing outcome? Assessment should be cognizant of individual differences in gene, socio-economic status (SES), parenting, nutrition, and interpersonal supports, which are moderators that interact with other factors influencing functional outcome.Neuropsychology Review 05/2014; · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6-16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n=177) and evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview scheduled on three occasions (within 2 weeks of TBI, i.e., baseline assessment for pre-injury status; 6-months and 12-months post-TBI). This permitted the determination of 6- and 12-month post-injury classifications of membership in three mutually exclusive groups (S-ADHD; pre-injury ADHD; TBI-only). Several executive control measures were administered. Unremitted S-ADHD was present in 17/141 (12%) children at the 6-month assessment, and in 14/125 (11%) children at 12-months post-injury. The study found that children with S-ADHD exhibited deficient working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as compared to children with pre-injury ADHD. Furthermore, the children with S-ADHD and the children with TBI-only were impaired compared to the children with pre-injury ADHD with regard to planning. No group differences related to response inhibition emerged. Age, but not injury severity, gender, or adaptive functioning was related to executive function outcome. Neuropsychological sequelae distinguish among children who develop S-ADHD following TBI and those with TBI only. Moreover, there appears to be a different pattern of executive control performance in those who develop S-ADHD than in children with pre-injury ADHD suggesting that differences exist in the underlying neural mechanisms that define each disorder, underscoring the need to identify targeted treatment interventions. (JINS, 2014, 20, 971-981).Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 11/2014; 20(10):971-81. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary objective: Does younger age at the time of severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) protect from cognitive symptoms? To answer this question, the authors compared the neuropsychological profile of late school-age children/adolescents and young adult patients at mid- and long-term recovery periods (6 and 12 months post-STBI). Methods and procedures: Twenty-eight children/adolescents and 26 clinically matched adults were tested on measures of general intelligence, attention, executive functions, visuoperceptual, visuospatial and visuoconstructive abilities. Coma duration and the post-acute Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were used as predictor variables in a series of regression analyses. Main outcomes and results: Children/adolescents and adults similarly improved on most measures, except for visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills, which worsened in time for children/adolescents. Coma duration significantly predicted performance IQ and visuoperceptual scores in children/adolescents. The GOS score significantly predicted performance and verbal IQ, sustained attention, visuoconstructive and long-term memory skills. Coma duration predicted executive function skills in both age groups. Conclusions: (1) No evidence was found for a neuroprotective effect of younger age at STBI; and (2) Coma duration and GOS score predicted neuropsychological recovery in children/adolescents and adults, respectively. This suggests the existence of underlying age-specific recovery processes after STBI.Brain Injury 03/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor