Vascular responses to extractable fractions of Ilex paraguariensis in rats fed standard and high-cholesterol diets.
ABSTRACT The authors investigated the vasorelaxant properties of the aqueous (Aq-EF) and acid n-butanolic (acn-BuOH) extractable fractions from Ilex paraguariensis leaves. Perfusion pressure was evaluated using isolated and perfused mesenteric arterial beds (MABs) from rats fed hypercholesterolemic and standard diets. Extract-induced vasorelaxation in the presence and absence of various inhibitors was examined following precontraction of the MABs with methoxamine (30 microM) solution. In hypercholesterolemic-diet rats, relaxation in intact MABs was significantly decreased with ac-n-BuOH-EF bolus (300, 600, 900 microg) in comparison to those in standard-diet rats. After the endothelium was stripped from the MABs, the vascular responses to ac-n-BuOH-EF and 900 microg bolus of Aq-EF were significantly changed. Treatment of the MABs with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 10 mM), did not change either ac-n-BuOH-EF- or Aq-EF-induced vasodilation except for the 900 microg bolus of Aq-EF. The guanilate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (100 microM) did not affect vasodilation for either fraction in the MABs from the hypercholesterolemic-diet rats. The chronic oral administration of I. paraguariensis extract in hypercholesterolemic-diet rats resulted in a significant reduction in serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. These results suggest that I. paraguariensis ac-n-BuOH-EF and Aq-EF induce vasodilation in standard-diet rats in a dose-dependent manner and that the hypercholesterolemic diet substantially reduced the effect of ac-n-BuOH-EF on precontracted MABs.
SourceAvailable from: Marcelo L Ribeiro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of yerba maté, YGD (a herbal preparation containing yerba maté, guarana and damiana), and resveratrol on adipogenesis. The anti-adipogenic effects of yerba mate, YGD, resveratrol and YGD + resveratrol and yerba mate + resveratrol combinations were evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells by Oil Red staining, cellular triglyceride content, and PCR quantitative array. The results demonstrated that all of the tested compounds inhibited adipogenesis. Yerba maté extract significantly down-regulated the expression of genes that play an important role in regulating adipogenesis, such as Adig, Axin, Cebpa, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Pparγ2. In addition, these genes, YGD also repressed Bmp2, Ccnd1, Fasn, and Srebf1. Resveratrol also modulated the expression of Adig, Bmp2, Ccnd1, C/EBPα, Fasn, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Pparγ2. Moreover, resveratrol repressed Cebpb, Cdk4, Fgf2, and Klf15. The yerba maté extract and YGD up-regulated the expression of genes involved in inhibiting adipogenesis, such as Dlk-1, Klf2, and Ucp1. Resveratrol also induced the expression of Klf2 and Ucp1. In addition resveratrol modulated the Ddit3, Foxo1, Sirt1, and Sirt2. The combined effects of these compounds on gene expression showed similar results observed from individual treatments. Our data indicates that the synergy between the compounds favors the inhibition of adipogenesis.Molecules 10/2014; 19(10):16909-24. DOI:10.3390/molecules191016909 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past three decades. Global anti-obesity strategies focus on dietary and lifestyle modifications to slow the development of obesity. Research in the nutrition field has recently aroused considerable interest based on the potential of natural products to counteract obesity. Several studies have identified yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) as an excellent candidate. In this review, we evaluated the impact of yerba maté on obesity and obesity-related inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrate that yerba maté suppresses adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation and reduces inflammation. Animal studies show that yerba maté modulates signaling pathways that regulate adipogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insulin signaling responses. In summary, the data presented here showed that the use of yerba maté might be useful against obesity, improving the lipid parameters in humans and animal models. In addition, yerba maté modulates the expression of genes that are changed in the obese state and restores them to more normal levels of expression. In doing so, it addresses several of the abnormal and disease-causing factors associated with obesity. Protective and ameliorative effects on insulin resistance were also observed. Thus, as a general conclusion, it seems that yerba maté beverages and supplements might be helpful in the battle against obesity.Nutrients 02/2015; 7(2):730-750. DOI:10.3390/nu7020730 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, is a species native to the subtropical and temperate regions of South America, used in beverages prepared by infusion such as teas, chimarrão and tererê. To investigate the physiological effects of I. paraguariensis on the metabolism of fats and sugars in Wistar rats, following the ingestion of erva-mate tea, four experimental groups were constructed: Lipid Control Group (receiving water and high-fat diet); Lipid Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-fat diet); the Sugar Control Group (water and high-sugar diet); and Sugar Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-sugar diet). The animals received their particular diet for 60 days, and were weighed weekly. After this period, the plasma concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and triacylglycerides were determined, together with the weight of visceral fat. The data were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. The results show that the ingestion of erva-mate affected body weight, visceral fat and plasma glucose, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels.Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 12/2010; 20(6):956-961. DOI:10.1590/S0102-695X2010005000045 · 0.80 Impact Factor