Vascular responses to extractable fractions of Ilex paraguariensis in rats fed standard and high-cholesterol diets.
ABSTRACT The authors investigated the vasorelaxant properties of the aqueous (Aq-EF) and acid n-butanolic (acn-BuOH) extractable fractions from Ilex paraguariensis leaves. Perfusion pressure was evaluated using isolated and perfused mesenteric arterial beds (MABs) from rats fed hypercholesterolemic and standard diets. Extract-induced vasorelaxation in the presence and absence of various inhibitors was examined following precontraction of the MABs with methoxamine (30 microM) solution. In hypercholesterolemic-diet rats, relaxation in intact MABs was significantly decreased with ac-n-BuOH-EF bolus (300, 600, 900 microg) in comparison to those in standard-diet rats. After the endothelium was stripped from the MABs, the vascular responses to ac-n-BuOH-EF and 900 microg bolus of Aq-EF were significantly changed. Treatment of the MABs with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 10 mM), did not change either ac-n-BuOH-EF- or Aq-EF-induced vasodilation except for the 900 microg bolus of Aq-EF. The guanilate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (100 microM) did not affect vasodilation for either fraction in the MABs from the hypercholesterolemic-diet rats. The chronic oral administration of I. paraguariensis extract in hypercholesterolemic-diet rats resulted in a significant reduction in serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. These results suggest that I. paraguariensis ac-n-BuOH-EF and Aq-EF induce vasodilation in standard-diet rats in a dose-dependent manner and that the hypercholesterolemic diet substantially reduced the effect of ac-n-BuOH-EF on precontracted MABs.
- SourceAvailable from: Samuel Kaiser[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (mate) has traditionally been used in several South American countries to prepare tea-like beverages having stimulant effects on the CNS and appetite. In recent years, however, mate preparations have been recommended putatively as an appetite suppressant and slimming remedy. Moreover, studies carried out on either normal or diet-induced obese rats treated with mate extracts revealed anti-obesity and satiety effects, thus refuting ethnopharmacological data. In this work, the effect of mate on the intra-abdominal and epididymal fat, and glucose oxidation levels after oral administration in male Wistar rats, was studied using crude extract from leaves, unripe fruits, and a chemically well-defined purified saponin fraction (MSF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Saponin, polyphenol and methylxanthine contents in MSF were analyzed by HPLC-PDA and UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Crude extracts from mate leaves (LAE) and unripe fruits (FHE) were assayed for comparison purposes. Male Wistar rats fed with standard diet and water ad libitum were used as the control group. RESULTS: The fat weight and both liver and adipose glucose oxidation were reduced significantly by MSF (35, 90 and 60%, respectively), while LAE and FHE were less active. Also, a significant lowering of the blood triglycerides level was observed in rats treated with MSF and LAE. All creatinine, urea, and transaminase plasma levels remained unaffected no matter what mate preparation was considered. It is also worth pointing out that the glucose blood level was increased after treatment with FHE. This finding did not correlate either with the content of methylxanthines, polyphenols or saponins. CONCLUSION: A reduction in both visceral fat weight and glucose oxidation of hepatic and adipose tissue in healthy rats fed with a standard diet could be ascribed to a purified mate saponin fraction from unripe fruits. These findings agree with former studies carried out with crude mate extracts and also suggest their potential use as an anti-obesity preparation. Nonetheless, further in vivo experiments are still required to corroborate its effect on human beings.Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2012; 144(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.023 · 2.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase-2 (PON-2) is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that can be modulated by polyphenols. The aim of this study was to verify whether yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a plant species rich in phenolic compounds, modulates gene expression and the activity of PON-2 in macrophages in vitro and in monocytes from peripheral blood and monocyte-derived macrophages obtained after the ingestion of green or roasted yerba mate infusions by healthy subjects. THP-1 macrophages were incubated with increasing amounts of yerba mate extracts or chlorogenic and caffeic acids (1-10 μmol/L). The in vivo effects of yerba mate or water (control) intakes were evaluated acutely (2 h after ingestion) and in the short term (after daily ingestion for 7 d) in 20 healthy women. In general, there was no difference between the two kinds of yerba mate studied. Yerba mate extracts or chlorogenic acid at 1 and 3 μmol/L increased PON-2 relative gene expression in THP-1 macrophages (P < 0.05), whereas higher concentrations (5 and 10 μmol/L) increased the activity only. Caffeic acid induced PON-2 activity only. The acute ingestion of yerba mate infusions increased relative gene expression and PON-2 activity in monocytes (P < 0.05), whereas the consumption of yerba mate for 7 d increased PON-2 relative gene expression (P < 0.05) and had a tendency to increase PON-2 activity in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. It is suggested that green or roasted yerba mate modulates positively the mRNA relative expression and activity of the PON-2 enzyme in monocytes and macrophages, which may prevent cellular oxidative stress.Nutrition 09/2012; 28(11-12):1157-64. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.04.011 · 3.05 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past three decades. Global anti-obesity strategies focus on dietary and lifestyle modifications to slow the development of obesity. Research in the nutrition field has recently aroused considerable interest based on the potential of natural products to counteract obesity. Several studies have identified yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) as an excellent candidate. In this review, we evaluated the impact of yerba maté on obesity and obesity-related inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrate that yerba maté suppresses adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation and reduces inflammation. Animal studies show that yerba maté modulates signaling pathways that regulate adipogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insulin signaling responses. In summary, the data presented here showed that the use of yerba maté might be useful against obesity, improving the lipid parameters in humans and animal models. In addition, yerba maté modulates the expression of genes that are changed in the obese state and restores them to more normal levels of expression. In doing so, it addresses several of the abnormal and disease-causing factors associated with obesity. Protective and ameliorative effects on insulin resistance were also observed. Thus, as a general conclusion, it seems that yerba maté beverages and supplements might be helpful in the battle against obesity.Nutrients 02/2015; 7(2):730-750. DOI:10.3390/nu7020730 · 3.15 Impact Factor