Differences Between Exclusive Breastfeeders, Formula-Feeders, and Controls: A Study of Stress, Mood, and Endocrine Variables
Research and Evaluation, University of Tennessee College of Nursing, Knoxville, TN 37996-4180, USA. Biological Research for Nursing
(Impact Factor: 1.43).
11/2005; 7(2):106-17. DOI: 10.1177/1099800405280936
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among lactational status, naturalistic stress, mood, and levels of serum cortisol and prolactin and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Eighty-four exclusively breastfeeding, 99 exclusively formula-feeding, and 33 nonpostpartum healthy control women were studied. The postpartum mothers were studied cross-sectionally once between 4 and 6 weeks after the birth. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, the Tennessee Postpartum Stress Scale, and the Inventory of Small Life Events. Mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States. Serum prolactin, plasma ACTH, and serum cortisol levels were measured by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kits. Results indicate that breastfeeding mothers had more positive moods, reported more positive events, and perceived less stress than formula-feeders. Reports of stressful life events were generally equivalent in the two groups. Serum prolactin was inversely related to stress and mood in formula-feeders. When breast and formula-feeders were compared to controls, they had higher serum cortisol, lower stress, and lower anxiety. Breastfeeders had lower perceived stress than controls. Breastfeeders had lower depression and anger and more positive life events reported than formula-feeders. However, there were few correlations among stress, mood, and the hormones in postpartum mothers, and those only in formula-feeders, whereas strong relationships were found between serum ACTH and a number of stress and mood variables in controls. Postpartum mothers reported a range of stress and negative moods at 4 to 6 weeks, and in formula-feeders, serum prolactin was related to some of the stress and mood variables. Breastfeeding appears to be somewhat protective of negative moods and stress.
Available from: K. D. Gribble
- "Breastfeeding assists mothers to provide their best possible care Child protection authorities should be concerned with the preservation of the ability of mothers to breastfeed their children because permanent severance of the breastfeeding relationship makes it more difficult for mothers to care for their children. Breastfeeding women are physiologically different from women who are not breastfeeding; hormones that are released in response to breastfeeding act on the central nervous system of mothers to promote maternal behaviour (Uvnas-Moberg et al., 1987; Uvnas-Moberg and Eriksson , 1996; Bartels and Zeki, 2004), maintain maternal proximity (Feldman et al., 1999) and reduce women's response to physical and emotional stress (Groer, 2005). Recent research has indicated that mothers who are not breastfeeding exhibit dampened responses in brain regions associated with maternal sensitivity as compared to breastfeeding women (Kim et al., 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: Social workers have a responsibility to protect and uphold the human rights of their clients. For those individuals and organisations involved in child protection, the rights of children, as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), provide essential guidance. The UNCRC supports the proposition that children have rights in relation to breastfeeding. This means that child protection workers and authorities have a responsibility to ensure that their interventions support and do not undermine mothers in breastfeeding their children. Furthermore, the impact of early cessation of breastfeeding in increasing health inequities and risk of child neglect only adds to the imperative for child protection interventions to support breastfeeding continuance. Two case studies are presented in which child protection authorities had interactions with a breastfeeding mother and child. In the first case, the child protection intervention resulted in the early and permanent cessation of breastfeeding. In the second case, active advocacy allowed breastfeeding to continue. However, in both cases, the mothers' insistence that breastfeeding was important to their children and should continue was pathologised. Recommendations are made for policies and training for child protection authorities to support the breastfeeding rights of children.
British Journal of Social Work 03/2014; 44(2):434-450. DOI:10.1093/bjsw/bcu004 · 1.19 Impact Factor
Available from: Zohreh Mahmoodi
- "Likewise, the blood level of prolactin hormone is an effective factor in reducing maternal stress (29). Women that use breast feeding report more positive mental condition, less anxiety and stress levels following childbirth and a positive perception about the childbirth events (30). In this study, the existence of infant abnormalities increases the risk of PTSD in mothers. "
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ABSTRACT: Childbirth might be a traumatic event for some women.
This study was conducted with the objective of investigating the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following childbirth.
The study was designed using a descriptive correlation scheme. The participants were selected from the women referred to the healthcare centers affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Personal interviews were conducted with 600 women who were 6-8 weeks postpartum and had been undergone to this center for postpartum and child care.
One hundred and three (17. 2%) women had symptoms of PTSD following childbirth based on the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS). The results of logistic regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between maternal occupation (P = 0.01), depression level (P < 0.001) and anxiety level (P < 0.001) with PTSD following childbirth.
PTSD from childbirth occurs in some women. Early identification of risk factors should lead to early therapeutic intervention in the mothers at risk of PTSD.
03/2013; 15(3):177-82. DOI:10.5812/ircmj.2312
Available from: Lois C Howland
- "In this study we found high levels of stress; the mean PSS score was 30.95 (SD = 5.9) compared with a group of postpartum term mothers in a study by Groer (2005) "
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate physiologic measures of stress with self-reported perceived stress and depressive symptoms among mothers of preterm babies currently hospitalized in an NICU.
This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, single-visit study of 20 mothers of hospitalized preterm infants. Data collected included self-report behavioral measures and a brief structured interview. Biological data were available on 17 mothers. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Mothers reported high levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of stress and more depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of certain serum cytokines, higher levels of waking and afternoon salivary cortisol, and abnormal diurnal patterns of salivary α-amylase.
A NICU admission is a stressful time for which families typically have not had the opportunity to prepare. Mothers with higher levels of stress and depressive symptoms may be at higher risk for poorer physical and mental health. This study highlights the high levels of stress and depressive symptoms that may be experienced by mothers of preterm infants, and suggests the potential value of developing effective strategies to target maternal psychological distress.
MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing 03/2011; 36(2):91-7. DOI:10.1097/NMC.0b013e318205587e · 0.90 Impact Factor
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