Genes required for fructose metabolism are expressed in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.
ABSTRACT Since 1967, fructose has become the primary commercial sweetener in the food industry. Large amounts of fructose can be toxic and have been correlated with atherosclerosis, malabsorption, hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, and cataracts. To understand the deleterious and critical role(s) fructose plays in normal metabolism, it is essential to know how and where fructose is metabolized. The fructose transporter, GLUT5, and the specialized enzymes ketohexokinase, aldolase, and triokinase comprise the well-defined fructose-specific metabolic pathway found in liver, kidney, and small intestine. It is estimated that 50-70% of ingested fructose is metabolized in these tissues; where and how the remaining 30-50% is metabolized is not well defined. Prediction of tissues capable of metabolizing fructose via this pathway was done using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Unigene and a gene-specific virtual northern blot (VNB) algorithm. Unigene and VNB combined correctly predicted the expression of the genes required for fructose metabolism in liver, kidney, and small intestine. Both methods indicated brain, breast, lymphocytes, muscle, placenta, and stomach additionally express this set of genes. Expression of the genes for GLUT5 (glut5) and ketohexokinase (khk) in neurons was validated by immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization, respectively. Using stringent controls, clear expression of glut5 and khk was localized to Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Cerebellum was used to oxidize fructose to carbon dioxide. Together, these data suggest that these neurons in the brain are able to utilize fructose as a carbon source.
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ABSTRACT: Under normal physiological conditions, the brain utilizes only a small number of carbon sources for energy. Recently, there is growing molecular and biochemical evidence that other carbon sources, including fructose, may play a role in neuro-energetics. Fructose is the number one commercial sweetener in Western civilization with large amounts of fructose being toxic, yet fructose metabolism remains relatively poorly characterized. Fructose is purportedly metabolized via either of two pathways, the fructose-1-phosphate pathway and/or the fructose-6-phosphate pathway. Many early metabolic studies could not clearly discriminate which of these two pathways predominates, nor could they distinguish which cell types in various tissues are capable of fructose metabolism. In addition, the lack of good physiological models, the diet-induced changes in gene expression in many tissues, the involvement of multiple genes in multiple pathways involved in fructose metabolism, and the lack of characterization of some genes involved in fructose metabolism have complicated our understanding of the physiological role of fructose in neuro-energetics. A recent neuro-metabolism study of the cerebellum demonstrated fructose metabolism and co-expression of the genes specific for the fructose 1-phosphate pathway, GLUT5 (glut5) and ketohexokinase (khk), in Purkinje cells suggesting this as an active pathway in specific neurons? Meanwhile, concern over the rapid increase in dietary fructose, particularly among children, has increased awareness about how fructose is metabolized in vivo and what effects a high fructose diet might have. In this regard, establishment of cellular and molecular studies and physiological characterization of the important and/or deleterious roles fructose plays in the brain is critical. This review will discuss the status of fructose metabolism in the brain with special reference to the cerebellum and the physiological roles of the different pathways.The Cerebellum 02/2007; 6(2):130-40. DOI:10.1080/14734220601064759 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our recent report that fructose supported the metabolism of some, but not all axons, in the adult mouse optic nerve prompted us to investigate in detail fructose metabolism in this tissue, a typical central white matter tract, as these data imply efficient fructose metabolism in the central nervous system (CNS). In artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10 mmol/L glucose or 20 mmol/L fructose, the stimulus-evoked compound action potential (CAP) recorded from the optic nerve consisted of three stable peaks. Replacing 10 mmol/L glucose with 10 mmol/L fructose, however, caused delayed loss of the 1st CAP peak (the 2nd and 3rd CAP peaks were unaffected). Glycogen-derived metabolic substrate(s) temporarily sustained the 1st CAP peak in 10 mmol/L fructose, as depletion of tissue glycogen by a prior period of aglycaemia or high-frequency CAP discharge rendered fructose incapable of supporting the 1st CAP peak. Enzyme assays showed the presence of both hexokinase and fructokinase (both of which can phosphorylate fructose) in the optic nerve. In contrast, only hexokinase was expressed in cerebral cortex. Hexokinase in optic nerve had low affinity and low capacity with fructose as substrate, whereas fructokinase displayed high affinity and high capacity for fructose. These findings suggest an explanation for the curious fact that the fast conducting axons comprising the 1st peak of the CAP are not supported in 10 mmol/L fructose medium; these axons probably do not express fructokinase, a requirement for efficient fructose metabolism.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 02/2007; 27(1):86-99. DOI:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600322 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fructose is now such an important component of human diets that increasing attention is being focused on the fructose transporter GLUT5. In this review, we describe the regulation of GLUT5 not only in the intestine and testis, where it was first discovered, but also in the kidney, skeletal muscle, fat tissue, and brain where increasing numbers of cell types have been found to have GLUT5. GLUT5 expression levels and fructose uptake rates are also significantly affected by diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and inflammation and seem to be induced during carcinogenesis, particularly in the mammary glands. We end by highlighting research areas that should yield information needed to better understand the role of GLUT5 during normal development, metabolic disturbances, and cancer.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2008; 295(2):E227-37. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.90245.2008 · 4.09 Impact Factor