Extension of the adult hepatic allograft pool using split liver transplantation.

Liver Transplant Unit, Université catholique de Louvain, University Hospital St-Luc, Brussels, Belgium.
Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica (Impact Factor: 0.58). 68(3):369-75.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The ever increasing number of, especially, adults waiting for a liver transplantation necessitates to develop techniques allowing to extend the available donor liver pool.
Between November 1988 and December 2004, 37 (6.6%) of 559 adults underwent split liver transplantation at Saint-Luc Hospitals. There were 36 were right and one left split procedures; 27 split grafts were obtained ex-situ and 10 in-situ. Results of these series are analysed and compared to literature data of split liver transplantation.
Three and 12 months patient survival rates were 89.2% and 78.4% respectively. Five years actuarial patient survival was 75.7%. Early (< 3 months) and late (> 3 months) mortality rates were 10.8% (4 pat.) and 21.6% respectively. Early mortality was significantly higher in case of urgent split liver transplantation (3/5 patients vs. 2/32 elective patients--p 0.001). At present 25 patients are alive, with a mean Karnofsky score of 90%. Three and 12 months graft survival rates were 91.7% and 87.1% respectively. Three and one grafts were lost due to primary and early graft non-function. In-situ split grafts had shorter mean warm, cold, total ischemia and operating times as well as less need for blood transfusion; all these differences were however not statistically significant. Surgical complications occurred in 19 (51%) patients. All but one complication occurred early (< 3 months). There were sixteen biliary complications in 13 (35.1%) patients: 9 anastomotic stenoses, 3 anastomotic and 4 transection margin leakages. Six vascular complications occurred in 6 (15.2%) patients: three arterial and 3 portal vein thromboses. Seven (18.9%) patients had a postoperative bleeding.
Graft and patient survival rates of split liver transplantation can be compared to those of classic liver transplantation. However the care of these patients is demanding due to the high number of technical complications. Results of split liver transplantation must be further improved in order to foster it's more widespread use necessary to overcome the actual shortage of liver allografts.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The routine use of a T-tube in reconstruction of the biliary tree during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is controversial. A systematic review of the literature on the use of a T-tube in reconstruction of the biliary tree was performed. Retrospective studies were only reviewed, whereas prospective randomized studies were included in the meta-analysis. An analysis of 196 studies revealed that 91 studies investigated the use of a T-tube in OLT. Fifteen retrospective studies compared different groups and were thus considered relevant; 6 prospective studies were identified, of which 5 were randomized controlled trials with a total of 639 patients. The results of the randomized controlled trials were meta-analyzed. The odds ratio (OR) for biliary complications was 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-4.72], and this revealed that there were no differences in the rate of overall biliary complications whether or not a T-tube was used (Z = 0.19, P = 0.85). A detailed analysis of the biliary complications revealed that biliary leaks developed in 24 patients in the T-tube group versus 22 patients in the no-T-tube group (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.4-3.47, Z = 0.29, P = 0.77). Biliary strictures were significantly more common in the group of patients who underwent reconstruction without a T-tube (14 versus 31 events; OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.23-0.9, Z = 2.26, P = 0.02). In conclusion, although reconstruction of the biliary tree with a T-tube prevents the occurrence of biliary strictures and may have the potential to reduce long-term morbidity with respect to late strictures, there is no clear evidence in favor of using a T-tube during OLT.
    Liver Transplantation 06/2010; 16(6):705-17. · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biliary strictures are one of the most common complications following liver transplantation, representing an important cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The reported incidence of biliary stricture is 5% to 15% following deceased donor liver transplantations and 28% to 32% following living donor liver transplantations. Bile duct strictures following liver transplantation are easily and conveniently classified as anastomotic strictures (AS) or non-anastomotic strictures (NAS). NAS are characterized by a far less favorable response to endoscopic management, higher recurrence rates, graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Current endoscopic strategies to correct biliary strictures following liver transplantation include repeated balloon dilatations and the placement of multiple side-by-side plastic stents. Endoscopic balloon dilatation with stent placement is successful in the majority of AS patients. In patients for whom gaining biliary access is technically difficult, a combined endoscopic and percutaneous/surgical approach proves quite useful. Future directions, including novel endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography techniques, advanced endoscopy, and improved stents could allow for a decreased number of interventions, increased intervals before retreatment, and decreased reliance on percutaneous and surgical modalities. The aim of this review is to detail the present status of endoscopy in the diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and future directions of biliary strictures related to orthotopic liver transplantation from the viewpoint of a clinical gastroenterologists.
    Gut and liver 06/2011; 5(2):133-42. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: This aim of this study is to determine the risk factors in failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). BACKGROUND:: Endoscopic treatment is considered the first-line intervention for biliary anastomotic stricture (BAS) after right-lobe living donor liver transplantation with duct-to-duct anastomosis. METHODS:: A retrospective study was performed on 287 patients who received right-lobe living donor liver transplantation with duct-to-duct anastomosis. The morphology of BAS was defined according to the shape of the distal side of duct-to-duct anastomosis shown on cholangiogram and was categorized into 3 types: pouched, intermediately pouched, and triangular. All cases of ERC were performed by operating surgeons. RESULTS:: Fifty-nine patients (20.6%) had BAS and received ERC and balloon dilatation with or without stenting. The success rate was 73.2%. The median number of sessions needed for successful ERC was 3. In the 15 patients with failed ERC, 4 were successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and balloon dilatation and 11 underwent conversion hepaticojejunostomy (6 had external percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage as a temporizing measure). On multivariate analysis, recipient age [odds ratio (OR): 0.922; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.00; P = 0.049], operation time (OR: 1.007; 95% CI: 1.001-1.013; P = 0.025), and morphology of stricture (OR: 6.722; 95% CI: 1.31-34.48; P = 0.022) were independent risk factors associated with failed ERC. The success rates for the 3 types of BAS-pouched, intermediately pouched, and triangular-were 42.9%, 63.6%, and 88.9%, respectively (P = 0.021). Association was found between bile leak and pouched BAS (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS:: ERC is highly effective in treating BAS. A success rate of 73%, the highest ever reported, has been achieved. Morphology of stricture is associated with outcome of ERC. Radiological or surgical intervention should be considered for patients with pouched BAS after endoscopic treatment fails for the first time.
    Annals of surgery 05/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor