Cytomegalovirus-induced interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with dermatomyositis.
ABSTRACT Dermatomyositis (DM) patients might present with pulmonary involvement as the first manifestation or during the follow-up period. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether the clinical manifestations related with pulmonary involvement are due to DM or to an infectious process. We report a case of DM patient who developed interstitial pneumonitis induced by cytomegalovirus (CMV) while receiving immunosuppressive treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report in the literature of interstitial pneumonitis secondary to CMV infection in a patient with DM.
- New England Journal of Medicine 08/1971; 285(5):267-74. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are pleiotropic hormones that at pharmacologic doses prevent or suppress inflammation and other immunologically mediated processes. At the molecular level, glucocorticoids form complexes with specific receptors that migrate to the nucleus where they interact with selective regulatory sites within DNA; this results in positive and negative modulation of several genes involved in inflammatory and immune responses. At the cellular level, glucocorticoids inhibit the access of leukocytes to inflammatory sites; interfere with the functions of leukocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts; and suppress the production and the effects of humoral factors involved in the inflammatory response. Clinically, several modes of glucocorticoid administration are used, depending on the disease process, the organ involved, and the extent of involvement. High doses of daily glucocorticoids are usually required in patients with severe diseases involving major organs, whereas alternate-day regimens may be used in patients with less aggressive diseases. Intravenous glucocorticoids (pulse therapy) are frequently used to initiate therapy in patients with rapidly progressive, immunologically mediated diseases. The benefits of glucocorticoid therapy can easily be offset by severe side effects; even with the greatest care, side effects may occur. Moreover, for certain complications (for example, infection diathesis, peptic ulcer, osteoporosis, avascular necrosis, and atherosclerosis), other drug toxicities and pathogenic factors overlap with glucocorticoid effects. Minimizing the incidence and severity of glucocorticoid-related side effects requires carefully decreasing the dose; using adjunctive disease-modifying immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents; and taking general preventive measures.Annals of internal medicine 01/1994; 119(12):1198-208. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oral ulcers are common in AIDS patients, with a wide spectrum of underlying causes, including different viruses. In the present study, the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) DNA was analysed in 21 biopsies from oral ulcers of 17 male homosexual AIDS patients. The methods used were in situ hybridization (ISH) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with subsequent non-radioactive Southern blot hybridization to confirm the specificity of PCR products. With ISH, 4 biopsies were CMV DNA-positive and 11 contained EBV-DNA. Using PCR, an additional 4 CMV- and 7 EBV-positive samples were detected, and HHV-8 DNA was present in three oral ulcers. Six of the patients (35%) had oral ulcers co-infected by two or three viruses. The overall figures for patients with the detectable EBV-, CMV-, and HHV-8 DNA were 82% (14/17), 35% (6/17) and 18% (3/17), respectively. This is the first study to show the frequent presence of EBV-DNA in oral ulcers of AIDS patients. Because ISH-positivity signifies active virus replication, these results implicate an etiological role of EBV in AIDS-associated oral ulcers. The causal role of HHV-8 has to be considered as well, because this virus was detected in three such ulcers, which were not associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. To conclude, three common members of the herpesvirus family (CMV, EBV, HHV-8) were detected in all but three ulcers in AIDS patients, warranting the inclusion of these viral analyses in the diagnosis of ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa in all immunosuppressed individuals.Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 06/1999; 28(5):204-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor