We investigated the mechanism by which a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) affects ovarian vascularity, vascular permeability, and expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Hyperstimulated rats received excessive doses of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG; 50 IU/d) for 4 consecutive days, from d 25 to 28 of life, followed by 25 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on d 29. Control rats received 10 IU PMSG on d 27 of life, followed by 10 IU hCG on d 29. GnRHa (leuprolide 100 microg/kg.d) was administered to some hyperstimulated rats either on d 29 and 30 (short-term GnRHa treatment) or from d 25 to 30 (long-term GnRHa treatment). Ovarian vascular density (vessels per 10 mm(2)) and vessel endothelial area (percent) were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of von Willebrand factor, whereas vascular permeability was evaluated based on leakage of Evans blue. High doses of PMSG and hCG significantly increased ovarian weight, vascular permeability, vascular density, and the vessel endothelial area and significantly reduced expression of claudin-5 protein and mRNA. All of these effects were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by administration of GnRHa. This suggests that reduced expression of claudin-5 plays a crucial role in the increased ovarian vascular permeability seen in OHSS and that its expression can be modulated by GnRHa treatment. Indeed, preventing redistribution of tight junction proteins in endothelial cells and the resultant loss of endothelial barrier architecture might be the key to protecting patients against massive extravascular fluid accumulation in cases of OHSS.
"Vascular permeability was measured by monitoring the release of intravenously injected Evans Blue dye (EB) into the peritoneal fluid and ovarian tissue as previously described
[24,27]. Briefly, 48 hours after hCG administration, 5 mM EB dye was diluted in distilled water and 0.2 ml was intravenously (i.v.) injected with an insulin injector through the tail vein. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In assisted reproduction cycles, gonadotropins are administered to obtain a greater number of oocytes. A majority of patients do not have an adverse response; however, approximately 3-6% develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Metformin reduces the risk of OHSS but little is known about the possible effects and mechanisms of action involved.
To evaluate whether metformin attenuates some of the ovarian adverse effects caused by OHSS and to study the mechanisms involved.
A rat OHSS model was used to investigate the effects of metformin administration. Ovarian histology and follicle counting were performed in ovarian sections stained with Masson trichrome. Vascular permeability was measured by the release of intravenously injected Evans Blue dye (EB). VEGF levels were measured by commercially immunosorbent assay kit. COX-2 protein expression was evaluated by western blot and NOS levels were analyses by immunohistochemistry.
Animals of the OHSS group showed similar physiopathology characteristics to the human syndrome: increased body weight, elevated progesterone and estradiol levels (P<0.001), increased number of corpora lutea (P<0.001), higher ovarian VEGF levels and vascular permeability (P<0.001 and P<0.01); and treatment with metformin prevented this effect (OHSS+M group; P<0.05). The vasoactive factors: COX-2 and NOS were increased in the ovaries of the OHSS group (P<0.05 and P<0.01) and metformin normalized their expression (P<0.05); suggesting that metformin has a role preventing the increased in vascular permeability caused by the syndrome.
Metformin has a beneficial effect preventing OHSS by reducing the increase in: body weight, circulating progesterone and estradiol and vascular permeability. These effects of metformin are mediated by inhibiting the increased of the vasoactive molecules: VEGF, COX-2 and partially NOS. Molecules that are increased in OHSS and are responsible for a variety of the symptoms related to OHSS.
Journal of Ovarian Research 09/2013; 6(1):62. DOI:10.1186/1757-2215-6-62 · 2.43 Impact Factor
"Western blot analysis was carried out as described previously . Ovaries were homogenized (100 mg wet weight/ml) in ice cold PBS (10 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM sodium chloride, pH 7.8) containing 0.2% Triton X-100 using a Teflon glass tissue grinder (15 strokes), after which the homogenates were centrifuged (12,000 × g at 4°C for 20 min), and the supernatant fractions were collected for protein assay. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats are a well-understood model of obesity and hyperinsulinemia. It is now thought that obesity/hyperinsulinemia is an important cause of endocrinological abnormality, but to date there have been no reports on the changes in ovarian morphology or the ovarian androgen profile in rat models of obesity and insulin resistance.
In this study we investigated the effects of obesity and hyperinsulinemia on ovarian morphology and the hormone profile in insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rats (5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, n = 6-7).
Ovaries from 5-week-old fatty rats had significantly greater total and atretic follicle numbers, and higher atretic-to-total follicle ratios than those from lean rats. Ovaries from 12- and 16-week-old fatty rats showed interstitial cell hyperplasia and numerous cysts with features of advanced follicular atresia. In addition, serum testosterone and androstenedione levels significantly declined in fatty rats from age 8 to 16 weeks, so that fatty rats showed significantly lower levels of serum testosterone (12 and 16 weeks) and androstenedione (all weeks) than lean rats. This may reflect a reduction of androgen synthesis during follicular atresia. Serum adiponectin levels were high in immature fatty rats, and although the levels declined significantly as they matured, it remained significantly higher in fatty rats than in lean rats. On the other hand, levels of ovarian adiponectin and its receptors were significantly lower in mature fatty rats than in lean mature rats or immature fatty rats.
Our findings indicate that ovarian morphology and hormone profiles are significantly altered by the continuous insulin resistance in Zucker fatty rats. Simultaneously, abrupt reductions in serum and ovarian adiponectin also likely contribute to the infertility seen in fatty rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial tight junctions form the main barrier of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In human hemangioblastomas, cyst formation is a common and important clinical manifestation. Although most researchers consider that the cyst formation in hemangioblastomas may be caused by the breakdown of the BBB, the underlying molecular mechanisms for cyst formation remain unknown. At present, there are few reports about the change of tight junctions in microvessel endothelium of human hemangioblastomas. The purpose of this research is to investigate the change of tight junction and its major molecular components in microvessel endothelium of human hemangioblastomas.
Twenty-four consecutive patients with cerebellar hemangioblastomas were studied. Tight junctions in the microvessels of hemangioblastomas and the control brain were examined by electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescent microscopy were used to analyze the expression of CLN5 and its relationship with astrocytic endfeet in the control brain and hemangioblastomas. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blots were used to investigate the expression level of CLN5 in hemangioblastomas. Triple immunofluorescent microscopy was used to analyze the coexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-R1, and placenta growth factor on microvessels of hemangioblastomas. Clinical and experimental data were correlated and analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman rank correlation test.
In the control brain, the paracellular cleft between adjacent endothelial cells is sealed by continuous strands of tight junctions. In cystic hemangioblastomas, a significant paracellular cleft could be found between adjacent endothelial cells. Some endothelial cells were connected with adherens junction and no tight junction was found between them. Compared with the control brain, expression of CLN5 was decreased in cystic hemangioblastomas (P < 0.05). Phosphorylated CLN5 was detected in most hemangioblastomas, but not in the control brain. Microvessels in hemangioblastomas showed a significant absence of astrocytic endfeet. Coexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-R1, and placenta growth factor was detected in the endothelial cells. The Spearman rank correlation test showed a significant correlation between a greater degree of CLN5 expression and less morphological cystic formation in these patients studied (correlation coefficient = -0.520; P = 0.009).
The continuity of tight junctions of the BBB is interrupted in human cerebellar hemangioblastomas. Significant absence of astrocytic endfeet and tight junctions can be found in microvessels of hemangioblastomas, which may lead to the breakdown of the BBB in these tumors. These findings suggest that the absence of tight junctions might play a role in cyst formation of hemangioblastomas.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.