Hyperstimulation and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist modulate ovarian vascular permeability by altering expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5.
ABSTRACT We investigated the mechanism by which a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) affects ovarian vascularity, vascular permeability, and expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Hyperstimulated rats received excessive doses of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG; 50 IU/d) for 4 consecutive days, from d 25 to 28 of life, followed by 25 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on d 29. Control rats received 10 IU PMSG on d 27 of life, followed by 10 IU hCG on d 29. GnRHa (leuprolide 100 microg/kg.d) was administered to some hyperstimulated rats either on d 29 and 30 (short-term GnRHa treatment) or from d 25 to 30 (long-term GnRHa treatment). Ovarian vascular density (vessels per 10 mm(2)) and vessel endothelial area (percent) were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of von Willebrand factor, whereas vascular permeability was evaluated based on leakage of Evans blue. High doses of PMSG and hCG significantly increased ovarian weight, vascular permeability, vascular density, and the vessel endothelial area and significantly reduced expression of claudin-5 protein and mRNA. All of these effects were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by administration of GnRHa. This suggests that reduced expression of claudin-5 plays a crucial role in the increased ovarian vascular permeability seen in OHSS and that its expression can be modulated by GnRHa treatment. Indeed, preventing redistribution of tight junction proteins in endothelial cells and the resultant loss of endothelial barrier architecture might be the key to protecting patients against massive extravascular fluid accumulation in cases of OHSS.
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ABSTRACT: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has a multifactorial pathogenesis and is an important cause of perinatal mortality. The relationship between fetal weight and placental blood flow in an animal model of IUGR has been investigated, showing that fetal growth is regulated by placental blood flow. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury stimulates the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) system or the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system in the placenta of a rat IUGR model. COX-2 is reported to be involved in ischemic damage in many organs. There are 4 types of PGE2 receptor (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4). It is well known that EP1 and EP3 is associated with vasoconstriction. In the present study, vessels were occluded in the right uterine horn on day 17 of pregnancy in rats, and the clamps were removed after 30 min of ischemia. At 24h, 48 h, and 5 days after I/R injury, the live fetuses and placentas were obtained by cesarean section. This study revealed that I/R injury caused IUGR 5 days after the treatment. COX-2 expression and EP3 receptor expression were significantly elevated at 24h after I/R injury, but VEGF mRNA expression was not altered in the placenta from the ischemic horn compared with the non-ischemic horn. These results suggested that induction of the COX-2-EP3 system in the placenta may be one of the causes of IUGR induced by uterine ischemia, because the EP3 receptor and PGE2 are well known to mediate vasoconstriction in many organs.Placenta 01/2006; 27(4-5):395-401. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown is a hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, but the molecular changes that cause this pathology are unclear. Occludin is a transmembrane component of interendothelial tight junctions that may regulate permeability at the BRB. In this study, we examined the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and diabetes on vascular occludin content and barrier function. Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic by intravenous streptozotocin injection, and age-matched animals served as controls. After 3 months, BRB permeability was quantified by intravenous injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA), Mr 66 kDa, and 10-kDa rhodamine-dextran (R-D), followed by digital image analysis of retinal sections. Retinal fluorescence intensity for FITC-BSA increased 62% (P < or = 0.05), but R-D fluorescence did not change significantly. Occludin localization at interendothelial junctions was confirmed by immunofluorescence, and relative protein content was determined by immunoblotting of retinal homogenates. Retinal occludin content decreased approximately 35% (P < or = 0.03) in the diabetic versus the control animals, whereas the glucose transporter GLUT1 content was unchanged in rat retinas. Additionally, treatment of bovine retinal endothelial cells in culture with 0.12 nmol/l or 12 nmol/l VEGF for 6 h reduced occludin content 46 and 54%, respectively. These data show that diabetes selectively reduces retinal occludin protein expression and increases BRB permeability. Our findings suggest that the elevated VEGF in the vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy increases vascular permeability by downregulating occludin content. Decreased tight junction protein expression may be an important means by which diabetes causes increased vascular permeability and contributes to macular edema.Diabetes 12/1998; 47(12):1953-9. · 7.90 Impact Factor