Patients with hematologic malignancies often require blood products, and parvovirus B19 is known to be transmitted by this route. Primary infection with parvovirus B19 shows a wide variety of disease manifestation. In immunocompromised patients, symptoms are severe and viral clearance is delayed or missing.
A total of 2123 blood products given to all patients of a hematologic ward over a period of 6 months were retrospectively examined for the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR; TaqMan). Patients who had received B19 DNA-positive blood products were further investigated serologically and by PCR for the presence of parvovirus B19 antibodies and DNA.
Twenty-one (1%) of 2123 blood products tested positive for the presence of B19 DNA (2% of pooled products, 0.7% of single-donor products, and 17.6% of allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cells), the median viral load was 700 genome equivalents per mL. During the study period, 114 patients were treated on the ward, and 14 (12%) of them received B19 DNA-positive blood components. None of them developed symptoms of an acute B19 infection, although one had a short low-level viremia.
Although B19 DNA was detected in 1 percent of blood products given to hematologic patients, the exposure of 12 percent of patients did not result in symptomatic infections.
"Plentz et al.  detected PV B19 DNA in 21 (1%) of 2123 tested blood samples that were going to be transplanted to patients with hematological cancer . In the posttransplantation period of patients with ASCT, primary or recurrent PV B19 incidence is found to be 1%-2% when sensitive diagnostic methods are used [8,19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to investigate posttransplant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and parvovirus B19 DNA in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients between 2009 and 2010.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five adult patients in whom allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed between April 2009 and November 2010 in the Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, were included in the study. EBV and parvovirus B19 DNA positivity was investigated by using real-time polymerase chain reaction technique in 135 plasma samples obtained after transplantation at between 1 and 6 months. Pretransplant serological markers of EBV and parvovirus B19 were provided from patient files.
Results: In 32 (71.1%) of the patients, EBV antibodies in the pretransplantation period were as follows: anti-EBNA-1 IgG (+), VCA IgM (-), and VCA IgG (+). In 2 patients (4.45%), these antibodies were as follows: anti-EBNA-1 IgG (+), VCA IgM (-), and VCA IgG (-). In 1 patient (2.2%), they were as follows: anti-EBNA-1 IgG (-), VCA IgM (-), and VCA IgG (+). EBV serological markers were negative in 2 (2.2%) out of 45 patients before transplantation. There was low DNA positivity (<600 copies/mL) in 4 patients (8.9%), and VCA IgM was negative and VCA IgG was positive in these same 4 patients. In spite of low viral load, there were no symptoms related to EBV, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) did not occur. While in 44 (99.7%) of 45 patients parvovirus B19 IgM was negative and IgG was positive, parvovirus B19 IgM was positive and IgG was negative in 1 (2.3%) patient. Parvovirus B19 DNA was not identified in any of the samples obtained from these 45 patients.
Conclusion: In this study, EBV and parvovirus B19 DNA were investigated in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. None of the patients developed PTLD and parvovirus B19 DNA positivity was not detected. However, this issue needs to be further evaluated in prospective, multicenter studies with larger series of patients.
"Although, this seems quite reassuring, these results cannot be generalized as they represent testing of only 3 batches and continuous monitoring is recommended. Other researchers from different countries have been able to detect parvovirus B19 DNA in 1 percent of all blood cell preparations and blood products applied to the patients on a hematologic ward, in 0.9 percent of standard blood components (in 2.0 percent of pooled plasma products and in 0.7 percent of single donor products) (Plentz et al, 2005), in 0.006 percent of blood donations, in 0.14 percent of single-donor blood products (Koppelman et al, 2004), in 0.16 percent of plasma samples (Thomas et al, 2003), in 0.6 to 1.3 percent of blood donors (Yoto et al, 1995; Candotti et al, 2004), in 12 percent of plasma pools with more than 10 4 geq per mL (Gallinella et al, 2002) in 43 percent of clotting factor concentrates (Schneider et al, 2004) and in 56 percent of "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parvovirus B19 is known to cause a spectrum of diseases ranging from mild illness to life threatening disease. The icosahedral nonenveloped B19 virion is resistant to ordinary physicochemical factors, including solvent-detergent treatment. Because of its minute size, 20-25 nm, the pathogen is also relatively resistant to filtration. It can thus be transmitted through blood products to vulnerable recipients in which it causes severe disease. This study aimed at tracking the presence of parvovirus B19 in plasma products available in the local market in Saudi Arabia using nested PCR. Results showed the absence of detectable levels of parvovirus B19 DNA from the tested products. While this is reassuring, it should not entice the authorities to refrain from continuously monitoring blood products for the presence of this virus and thus avoid the possibility of transmission to at-risk individuals.
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