Prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus among community and replacement first-time blood donors in Sao Paulo, Brazil
ABSTRACT Concerted efforts have been directed toward recruitment of community rather than replacement donors in Brazil. Time trends and demographic correlates of human immunodeficiency (HIV) prevalence and incidence among first-time (FT) donors in Brazil were examined by donation type. HIV residual risk from FT-donor transfusions, and projected yield of p24 antigen and nucleic acid test (NAT) screening were estimated.
HIV prevalence data and seroreactive specimens were obtained at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro-de-São Paulo from 1995 to 2001. To estimate incidence, confirmed-positive samples from July 1998 through December 2001 were tested with a less-sensitive (detuned) enzyme immunoassay to detect recent seroconversions. Incidence data were used to estimate residual risk and p24 and NAT yield based on published window periods (WPs).
HIV prevalence was 22 percent higher among the FT community donors than replacement donors (19.6 vs. 16.1 per 10,000; p < 0.01) and 48 percent higher among men than women (19.1 vs. 12.9; p < 0.01). In the multivariable logistic regression, both variables remained significant predictors of HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence decreased from 20.4 (1995) to 13.1 per 10,000 FT donations (2001). HIV incidence was 2.7 per 10,000 person-years. The estimated rate of infected antibody-negative donations was 14.9 per 1,000,000 units (95% confidence interval, 9.8-20.0). It was estimated that addition of p24 antigen, minipool NAT, and individual-donation NAT assays would detect 3.9 (2.0-5.8), 8.3 (5.3-11.3), and 10.8 (7.1-14.5) WP units per 1,000,000 FT donations, respectively.
HIV incidence and residual transfusion risk estimates are approximately 10 times higher in Brazil FT donors compared to US and European FT donors. Community FT donors had higher HIV prevalence than replacement FT donors. The yield of p24 antigen or RNA screening will be low in Brazilian donors, but substantially higher than in US donors.
SourceAvailable from: Roberta Bruhn[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reducing risk of HIV window period transmission requires understanding of donor knowledge and attitudes related to HIV and risk factors. We conducted a survey of 7635 presenting blood donors at three Brazilian blood centres from 15 October through 20 November 2009. Participants completed a questionnaire on HIV knowledge and attitudes about blood donation. Six questions about blood testing and HIV were evaluated using maximum likelihood chi-square and logistic regression. Test seeking was classified in non-overlapping categories according to answers to one direct and two indirect questions. Overall, respondents were male (64%) repeat donors (67%) between 18 and 49 years old (91%). Nearly 60% believed blood centres use better HIV tests than other places; however, 42% were unaware of the HIV window period. Approximately 50% believed it was appropriate to donate to be tested for HIV, but 67% said it was not acceptable to donate with risk factors even if blood is tested. Logistic regression found that less education, Hemope-Recife blood centre, replacement, potential and self-disclosed test-seeking were associated with less HIV knowledge. HIV knowledge related to blood safety remains low among Brazilian blood donors. A subset finds it appropriate to be tested at blood centres and may be unaware of the HIV window period. These donations may impose a significant risk to the safety of the blood supply. Decreasing test-seeking and changing beliefs about the appropriateness of individuals with behavioural risk factors donating blood could reduce the risk of transfusing an infectious unit.Vox Sanguinis 12/2013; 106(4). DOI:10.1111/vox.12114 · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction Previous studies have shown high residual risk of transfusing a blood donation contaminated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Brazil and motivated the development of a Brazilian platform for simultaneous detection of both viruses by nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) denominated HIV/HCV Bio-Manguinhos/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ). The objective of this study was to verify seroprevalence, incidence and residual risk for both viruses before and after the implementation of NAT. Methods Over 700,000 blood samples from all blood banks in the southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina were analyzed during the period between January 2007 and July 2013. Results Compared with the period preceding the NAT screening, HIV prevalence increased from 1.38 to 1.58 per 1,000 donors, HIV incidence rate increased from 1.22 to 1.35 per 1,000 donor-years, and HIV residual risk dropped almost 2.5 times during the NAT period. For HCV, seroprevalence increased from 1.22 to 1.35 per 1,000 donors, incidence dropped from 0.12 to 0.06 per 1,000 donor-years, and residual risk decreased more than 3 times after the NAT implementation. Conclusions NAT reduced the duration of the immunologic window for HIV and HCV, thus corresponding to approximately 2.5- and 3-fold respective residual risk reductions.Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 07/2014; 47(4):418-425. DOI:10.1590/0037-8682-0133-2014 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Replacement donors are considered as having a major risk of transmission of infections to recipients mainly by the World Health Organisation. Seroprevalency of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis were determined in 19,783 whole blood donations collected in the Tunisian National Blood Transfusion Centre during the year 2010 (12,968 [65.55%] replacement donations and 6815 [34.44%] voluntary blood donations). For HBV, HCV and syphilis, we performed a univariate analysis to determine whether age, sex and type of donation were risk factors, then multivariate logistic regression, to see if these factors were independent. Mean age of donors was 30.1 years (replacement donors 34.5 years, first time non-remunerated donors 34.5 years, P<0.001). The predominant age group was 30-39 years (35.51%) in replacement donors and 20-29 years (54.15%) in first time non-remunerated donors. Male gender was significantly predominant (73.00% men vs 27.00% women, P<10(-6)). There were significantly more men among replacement donors (82.27% vs 55.38%, P<10(-3)). There were more women in the age groups 18-19 and 20-29 years. Only one HIV seropositive donation was noted in a male first time non-remunerated donor aged 18. Replacement type of donation, male sex and age were three independent risk factors for the HBs Ag carriage. For anti-HCV antibodies and TPHA, only replacement type of donation and age were found out to be risk factors and only age was independent. In Tunisia, replacement blood donors were at higher risk of infection transmission, but only for hepatitis B. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 11/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1016/j.tracli.2014.10.001 · 0.67 Impact Factor