PP2 inhibits glutamate release from nerve endings by affecting vesicle mobilization.
ABSTRACT Src kinase is widely expressed in the brain and its inhibition with PP2 has previously been shown to depress depolarization-evoked glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes by reducing voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. In this study, we further showed that the inhibitory effect of PP2 on 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release results from a reduction of vesicular exocytosis and not from an inhibition of non-vesicular release. In addition, PP2 significantly inhibited ionomycin-induced or hypertonic sucrose-induced glutamate release. Also, disruption of cytoskeleton organization with cytochalasin D occluded the inhibitory action of PP2 on 4-aminopyridine and ionomycin-evoked glutamate release. These results suggest that PP2-mediated inhibition of glutamate release involves the modulation of some exocytotic steps, possibly through a regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics.
- SourceAvailable from: Emanuele Cocucci[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies carried out by immunofluorescence, patch-clamping and FM dye fluorescence consistently showed that the Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis of enlargeosomes, specific vesicles expressed by many cell types, is strongly reinforced by pre-treatment of the cells with genistein, a wide spectrum blocker of tyrosine kinases, which also induces many additional effects. Various other blockers of tyrosine kinases, however, were ineffective, and the same occurred with drugs mimicking most of the rapid, non-tyrosine kinase-dependent effects of genistein. The reinforcement of enlargeosome-regulated exocytosis, therefore, is a new effect of genistein and a peculiar property of the enlargeosome exocytosis, not shared by analogous processes.FEBS Letters 11/2007; 581(25):4932-6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
- Journal of The Neurological Sciences - J NEUROL SCI. 01/2009; 285.
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ABSTRACT: Before undergoing neuroexocytosis, secretory granules (SGs) are mobilized and tethered to the cortical actin network by an unknown mechanism. Using an SG pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, we found that myosin VI was recruited to SGs in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Interfering with myosin VI function in PC12 cells reduced the density of SGs near the plasma membrane without affecting their biogenesis. Myosin VI knockdown selectively impaired a late phase of exocytosis, consistent with a replenishment defect. This exocytic defect was selectively rescued by expression of the myosin VI small insert (SI) isoform, which efficiently tethered SGs to the cortical actin network. These myosin VI SI-specific effects were prevented by deletion of a c-Src kinase phosphorylation DYD motif, identified in silico. Myosin VI SI thus recruits SGs to the cortical actin network, potentially via c-Src phosphorylation, thereby maintaining an active pool of SGs near the plasma membrane.The Journal of Cell Biology 02/2013; 200(3):301-20. · 10.82 Impact Factor