PP2 inhibits glutamate release from nerve endings by affecting vesicle mobilization.

aSchool of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Hsin-Chuang, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan.
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.64). 12/2005; 16(17):1969-72. DOI: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000189758.57164.85
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Src kinase is widely expressed in the brain and its inhibition with PP2 has previously been shown to depress depolarization-evoked glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes by reducing voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. In this study, we further showed that the inhibitory effect of PP2 on 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release results from a reduction of vesicular exocytosis and not from an inhibition of non-vesicular release. In addition, PP2 significantly inhibited ionomycin-induced or hypertonic sucrose-induced glutamate release. Also, disruption of cytoskeleton organization with cytochalasin D occluded the inhibitory action of PP2 on 4-aminopyridine and ionomycin-evoked glutamate release. These results suggest that PP2-mediated inhibition of glutamate release involves the modulation of some exocytotic steps, possibly through a regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synapsins are synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated phosphoproteins involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Synapsins reversibly tether SVs to the cytoskeleton and their phosphorylation by serine/threonine kinases increases SV availability for exocytosis by impairing their association with SVs and/or actin. We recently showed that synapsin I, through SH3- or SH2-mediated interactions, activates Src and is phosphorylated by the same kinase at Tyr301. Here, we demonstrate that, in contrast to serine phosphorylation, Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsin I increases its binding to SVs and actin, and increases the formation of synapsin dimers, which are both potentially involved in SV clustering. Synapsin I phosphorylation by Src affected SV dynamics and was physiologically regulated in brain slices in response to depolarization. Expression of the non-phosphorylatable (Y301F) synapsin I mutant in synapsin-I-knockout neurons increased the sizes of the readily releasable and recycling pools of SVs with respect to the wild-type form, which is consistent with an increased availability of recycled SVs for exocytosis. The data provide a mechanism for the effects of Src on SV trafficking and indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsins, unlike serine phosphorylation, stimulates the reclustering of recycled SVs and their recruitment to the reserve pool.
    Journal of Cell Science 07/2010; 123(Pt 13):2256-65. DOI:10.1242/jcs.068445 · 5.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Before undergoing neuroexocytosis, secretory granules (SGs) are mobilized and tethered to the cortical actin network by an unknown mechanism. Using an SG pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, we found that myosin VI was recruited to SGs in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Interfering with myosin VI function in PC12 cells reduced the density of SGs near the plasma membrane without affecting their biogenesis. Myosin VI knockdown selectively impaired a late phase of exocytosis, consistent with a replenishment defect. This exocytic defect was selectively rescued by expression of the myosin VI small insert (SI) isoform, which efficiently tethered SGs to the cortical actin network. These myosin VI SI-specific effects were prevented by deletion of a c-Src kinase phosphorylation DYD motif, identified in silico. Myosin VI SI thus recruits SGs to the cortical actin network, potentially via c-Src phosphorylation, thereby maintaining an active pool of SGs near the plasma membrane.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 02/2013; 200(3):301-20. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201204092 · 9.69 Impact Factor