Article

The Children in the Community Study of Developmental Course of Personality Disorder

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Journal of Personality Disorders (Impact Factor: 2.31). 11/2005; 19(5):466-86. DOI: 10.1521/pedi.2005.19.5.466
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Children in the Community (CIC) Study is an ongoing investigation of the course of psychiatric disorders including personality disorders (PDs) in an epidemiological sample of about 800 youths. In addition to tracking developmental trajectories over 20 years from adolescence into adulthood, the CIC Study has used prospective data to investigate early risks for Axis II disorders and symptoms (including both environmental factors and early characteristics), implications of comorbidity with Axis I disorders, and associated negative prognostic risk of adolescent PDs into adulthood. The substantial independent impact of PD on subsequent Axis I disorders, suicide attempts, violent and criminal behavior, interpersonal conflict, and other problematic adult outcomes confirms the importance of attention to these problems when they manifest in early adolescence. The implications of study findings for potential changes in the DSM are discussed.

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    • "These two domains overlap and personality traits predict common mental disorder accurately (Kotov et al., 2010). Longitudinally early personality disorder is related to both later personality disorder (Johnson et al., 2000) and common mental state disorder in epidemiological samples (Cohen et al., 2005). Common mental state disorders have also been reported to fit a two factor model of psychopathology in a longitudinal sample (Krueger et al., 1998), reflecting an internalizing and externalizing factor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Personality has been associated with a variety of outcomes in adulthood. Most of the literature related to mental state disorder and personality is cross sectional. Data from more than 900 participants of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) were examined. Extroversion and neuroticism were measured at 14 years old and social outcomes at age 30. The presence of mental state disorder between 18-30 years old was identified. Multiple potential confounders in childhood were included in the analysis. Neuroticism at fourteen was significantly correlated with multiple environmental exposures whereas extroversion had relatively few associations. Regression analysis found that neuroticism at 14 predicted depression, anxiety, suicidality and overall mental health problems at 30 as well as poor self-esteem but not relationship quality or wellbeing. Extroversion at 14 predicted alcohol and drug dependence and overall mental health problems, but also predicted improved social wellbeing, self-esteem and relationship quality at 30. In this analysis extroversion interacts with significantly fewer environmental factors than neuroticism in predicting adult outcomes. Neuroticism at 14 years predicts poorer mental health outcomes in adulthood. Extroversion in childhood may be a protective factor in the development of mental disorder other than alcohol use disorders. Extroverted adolescents have more positive social outcomes at 30 years. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 02/2015; 49(4). DOI:10.1177/0004867415569796 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    • "In accord with Zanarini and Frankenburg (1997), a number of putative childhood experiences are likely to play a role in the development of emotion dysregulation, poor distress tolerance and BPD. As the plethora of aetiological studies have suggested, BPD is likely to develop as a result of biological vulnerabilities plus gene–environment interactions that may include early emotional vulnerability in combination with a variety of severe forms of abuse and neglect (Cohen et al., 2005; Linehan, 1993). It is important to note that the models examined in the present study were not a complete test of the theory and differ from previous research testing the Linehan (1993) constructs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Contemporary theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have detailed the functional importance of emotional invalidation in meaningful relationships as an aetiological and perpetuating factor of its core disturbances. The purpose of our study was to test aspects of Linehan's (1993) biosocial and Fruzzetti (1996) and Fruzzetti, Shenk, and Hoffman's (2005) validation/invalidation family interactions transactional theories in a community sample of 186 participants. Results indicated that a multi-mediational path model of invalidation in meaningful relationships, emotion dysregulation, poor distress tolerance and BPD symptoms provided a perfect fit to the data and accounted for a substantial amount of variance in BPD (38%). The results provided support for these complimentary theories of BPD, which hold promise for clinical applications and future research. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Personality and Mental Health 05/2014; 8(2):128-42. DOI:10.1002/pmh.1249 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    • "In normative samples, negative, invalidating parenting behaviors have been associated with social and emotional difficulties throughout childhood (Eisenberg et al., 1999; Kiff, Lengua, & Zalewski, 2011; Silk et al., 2009) and psychological distress in adulthood (Krause, Mendelson, & Lynch, 2003). Prospective evidence from the Children in the Community Study (Cohen et al., 2005) has found maternal inconsistency and emotional overinvolvement (Bezirganian, Cohen, & Brook, 1993), and low warmth and harsh punishment (Johnson , Cohen, Kasen, & Brook, 2006) to predict BPD symptoms in adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Winsper, Zanarini, and Wolke (2012) also found a prospective relationship between harsh punishment and risk for BPD in children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) postulate that high-risk transactions between caregiver and child are important for the development and maintenance of the disorder. Little empirical evidence exists regarding the reciprocal effects of parenting on the development of BPD symptoms in adolescence. The impact of child and caregiver characteristics on this reciprocal relationship is also unknown. Thus, the current study examines bidirectional effects of parenting, specifically harsh punishment practices and caregiver low warmth, and BPD symptoms in girls aged 14-17 years based on annual, longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2,451) in the context of child and caregiver characteristics. We examined these associations through the use of autoregressive latent trajectory models to differentiate time-specific variations in BPD symptoms and parenting from the stable processes that steadily influence repeated measures within an individual. The developmental trajectories of BPD symptoms and parenting were moderately associated, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. There was some support for time-specific elevations in BPD symptoms predicting subsequent increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth. There was little support for increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth predicting subsequent elevations in BPD symptoms. Child impulsivity and negative affectivity, and caregiver psychopathology were related to parenting trajectories, while only child characteristics predicted BPD trajectories. The results highlight the stability of the reciprocal associations between parenting and BPD trajectories in adolescent girls and add to our understanding of the longitudinal course of BPD in youth.
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