To evaluate serum titers obtained by use of the microscopic agglutination test (ie, MAT titers) to Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and autumnalis and Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa in dogs given a commercial vaccine against serovars pomona and grippotyphosa.
Forty 12-week-old puppies and 20 mature Beagles.
Puppies received a commercial vaccine against serovars pomona and grippotyphosa at 12 weeks of age, then received a booster vaccine and 3 weeks later; mature dogs received the vaccine once. Serum MAT titers to serovars pomona, autumnalis, and grippotyphosa were measured before vaccination and at 2, 4, 6, 10, and 16 weeks after the first or only vaccination.
Of the 40 puppies vaccinated, 40, 0, and 40 developed MAT titers of > 100 after vaccination to serovars pomona, grippotyphosa, and autumnalis, respectively. Microscopic agglutination test titers to serovar autumnalis were higher than MAT titers to serovars pomona and grippotyphosa and persisted in some dogs for 16 weeks (6 weeks longer than for titers to serovar pomona). Of the 20 mature dogs, 13, 5, and 20 developed MAT titers of > 100 at 2 weeks to serovars pomona, grippotyphosa, and autumnalis, respectively. Titers to serovar pomona were higher and persisted in some dogs beyond 16 weeks after vaccination, compared with titers to serovars pomona and grippotyphosa, which persisted for 10 and 6 weeks, respectively.
Subunit vaccines against serovars pomona and grippotyphosa induce MAT titers not only to homologous antigens but also to serovar autumnalis, which could lead to a misdiagnosis of leptospirosis caused by serovar autumnalis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, proteomes of two pathogenic Leptospira spp., namely L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, serovar Copenhageni and L. borgpetersenii, serogroup Tarassovi, serovar Tarassovi, were revealed by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE)-based-proteomics. Bacterial cells were disrupted in a lysis buffer containing 30 mM Tris, 2 M thiourea, 7 M urea, 4% CHAPS, 2% IPG buffer pH 3-10 and protease inhibitors and then subjected to sonication in order to solubilize as much as possible the bacterial proteins. The 2DE-separated components of both Leptospira homogenates were blotted individually onto membranes and antigenic components (immunomes) were revealed by probing the blots with immune serum of a mouse readily immunized with the homogenate of L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, serovar Copenhageni. The immunogenic proteins of the two pathogenic Leptospira spp. could be grouped into 10 groups. These are: 1) proteins involved in the bacterial transcription and translation including beta subunit transcription anti-termination protein of DNA polymerase III, elongation factors Tu and Ts, and tRNA (guanine-N1)-methyltransferase; 2) proteins functioning as enzymes for metabolisms and nutrient acquisition including acetyl-Co-A acetyltransferase, putative glutamine synthetase, glyceraldehyde-3-phospahte dehydrogenase, NifU-like protein, 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase, oxidoreductase, sphingomyelinase C precursor, spermidine synthase, beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase, and succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit; 3) proteins/enzymes necessary for energy and electron transfer, i.e. electron transfer flavoprotein, and proton-translocating transhydrogenase; 4) enzymes for degradation of misfolded proteins, i.e. ATP-dependent Clp protease; 5) molecular chaperone, i.e. 60 kDa chaperonin; 6) signal transduction system, i.e. response regulator; 7) protein involved in immune evasion in host, i.e. peroxiredoxin; 8) cell structure proteins including MreB (cytoskeletal) and flagellin/ periplasmic flagellin; 9) lipoproteins/outer membrane proteins: LipL32, LipL41, LipL45 and OmpL1; and 10) various hypothetical proteins. Many immunogenic proteins are common to both Leptospira spp. These proteins not only are the diagnostic targets but also have potential as candidates of a broad spectrum leptospirosis vaccine especially the surface exposed components which should be vulnerable to the host immune effector factors.
Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 04/2007; 25(1):53-73. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of serum antibodies to different Leptospira serogroups in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis in southern Germany and to compare seroreactivity to different serogroups with history, clinical signs, laboratory findings and survival rate.
In this study, the data of 42 dogs with the diagnosis of leptospirosis were evaluated retrospectively. Dogs were presented to the Small Animal Medicine Teaching Hospital (Medizinische Kleintierklinik) of the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Germany, between 1990 to 2003.
Reactivity to the serogroup grippotyphosa (13/42) was most frequently present, followed by reactivity to the serogroup saxkoebing (10/42). There was no difference in the clinical picture and the laboratory changes between dogs whose sera were reactive to different serogroups.
Most of the dogs with leptospirosis in southern Germany had sera reacting to serogroups other than icterohaemorrhagiae and canicola, which are contained in the vaccine. Thus, currently available vaccines in Europe do not protect against the most common Leptospira organisms associated with clinical disease.
Journal of Small Animal Practice 07/2007; 48(6):324-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2007.00324.x · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of antibodies against 6 Leptospira serovars and determine risk factors associated with positive Leptospira titers in healthy client-owned dogs in Michigan.
1,241 healthy dogs at least 4 months of age.
Dogs were examined by veterinarians at private practices. Vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs were enrolled in the study, which occurred prior to the availability of a 4-serovar (Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona) Leptospira vaccine. Sera were tested by use of the microscopic agglutination test to determine antibody titers against Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information about each dog to identify risk factors associated with seropositive status.
309 of 1,241 (24.9%) dogs had antibody titers against at least 1 of the 6 Leptospira serovars, which suggested exposure to Leptospira spp. Prevalence of antibodies was highest to serovar Grippotyphosa, followed by Bratislava, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Age, travel outside Michigan, exercise outside fenced yards, and exposure to livestock and wildlife were significant risk factors for positive titers.
Among healthy dogs from the lower peninsula of Michigan, > 20% have antibodies against leptospiral serovars historically considered uncommon but more recently incriminated as causing clinical canine leptospirosis. Wildlife and livestock may be of increasing importance as reservoirs for canine leptospirosis as urbanization continues to occur. Expanded vaccination strategies may partially mitigate these trends.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 07/2007; 230(11):1657-64. DOI:10.2460/javma.230.11.1657 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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