Products resulting from cleavage of the interglobular domain of aggrecan in samples of synovial fluid collected from dogs with early- and late-stage osteoarthritis.
ABSTRACT To investigate interglobular domain (IGD) cleavage of aggrecan in dogs with naturally developing osteoarthritis (OA).
Samples of synovial fluid (SF) obtained from 3 cubital (elbow) joints and 3 stifle joints of 4 clinically normal dogs, 24 elbow joints of 12 dogs with early-stage OA, 8 stifle joints of 5 dogs with early-stage OA, and 10 stifle joints of 9 dogs with late-stage OA.
Fractions of SF were assayed for total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and also subjected to Western blot analysis by use of monoclonal antibodies against neoepitopes generated by cleavage of the IGD of the aggrecan protein core by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP; BC-14) and aggrecanase (BC-3).
Total GAG content of SF from joints of clinically normal dogs did not differ from that of dogs with early-stage OA. The GAG content of SF from joints of dogs with late-stage OA was significantly lower, compared with GAG content for other SF samples. Aggrecanase-generated fragments were detected in SF from all groups but not in all samples. Matrix metalloproteinase-generated fragments were not detected in any SF samples. In early-stage OA, high-molecular-weight aggrecanase-generated aggrecan catabolites were evident.
GAG content of SF obtained from dogs with late-stage OA is significantly decreased, suggesting proteoglycan depletion of cartilage. Aggrecanases, but not MMPs, are the major proteolytic enzymes responsible for IGD cleavage of aggrecan in canine joints. Analyses of SF samples to detect aggrecanase-generated catabolites may provide an early biomarker for discriminating early- and late-stage OA in dogs.
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ABSTRACT: Aggrecan is responsible for the mechanical properties of cartilage. One of the earliest changes observed in arthritis is the depletion of cartilage aggrecan due to increased proteolytic cleavage within the interglobular domain. Two major sites of cleavage have been identified in this region at Asn(341)-Phe(342) and Glu(373)-Ala(374). While several matrix metalloproteinases have been shown to cleave at Asn(341)-Phe(342), an as yet unidentified protein termed "aggrecanase" is responsible for cleavage at Glu(373)-Ala(374) and is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in cartilage damage. We have identified and cloned a novel disintegrin metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs that possesses aggrecanase activity, ADAMTS11 (aggrecanase-2), which has extensive homology to ADAMTS4 (aggrecanase-1) and the inflammation-associated gene ADAMTS1. ADAMTS11 possesses a number of conserved domains that have been shown to play a role in integrin binding, cell-cell interactions, and extracellular matrix binding. We have expressed recombinant human ADAMTS11 in insect cells and shown that it cleaves aggrecan at the Glu(373)-Ala(374) site, with the cleavage pattern and inhibitor profile being indistinguishable from that observed with native aggrecanase. A comparison of the structure and expression patterns of ADAMTS11, ADAMTS4, and ADAMTS1 is also described. Our findings will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of cartilage degradation and provide targets to search for effective inhibitors of cartilage depletion in arthritic disease.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1999; 274(33):23443-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The release of aggrecan catabolites from cartilage is an early event in the pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases. The enzymes involved in this process are unknown, controversial, and the subject of intense investigation. In this paper we have utilized a recombinant substrate containing the interglobular domain (IGD) of aggrecan to study specifically aggrecanase versus matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) catabolism in this domain of aggrecan. Our studies have shown that (i) there are species differences in the expression of latent versus active MMP activity on the aggrecan IGD; (ii) interleukin-1alpha exposure induces both aggrecanase and MMP activities, whereas retinoic acid induces only aggrecanase activity and inhibits the MMP activity on the aggrecan IGD; (iii) activators of latent MMP activity (p-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin) significantly reduce aggrecanase activity; (iv) the time course of the appearance of aggrecanase versus the MMP catabolism of aggrecan IGD differs; (v) aggrecanase is a protease with metalloprotease characteristics; however (vi) the physiological (tissue) inhibitors of MMPs show weak inhibition (TIMP-1) or no inhibition (TIMP-2) of aggrecanase activity. Collectively, these studies show that aggrecanase and MMP catabolism of the aggrecan IGD are independent and uncoupled.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1998; 273(46):30576-82. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The importance of aggrecanase versus matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymic activities in the degradation of aggrecan in normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage in vitro was studied in order to further our understanding of the potential role of these two enzyme activities in aggrecan catabolism during the pathogenesis of cartilage degeneration. Porcine and bovine articular cartilage was maintained in explant culture for up to 20 days in the presence or absence of the catabolic stimuli retinoic acid, interleukin-1 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Release of proteoglycan from cartilage was measured as glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release using a colorimetric assay. Analysis of proteoglycan degradation products, both released into culture media and retained within the cartilage matrix, was performed by Western blotting using antibodies specific for the N- and C-terminal neoepitopes generated by aggrecanase- and MMP-related catabolism of the interglobular domain of the aggrecan core protein (IGD). In addition, studies determining the mRNA expression for MMP-3 and MMP-13 in these same cultures were undertaken. These analyses indicated that all three catabolic agents stimulated the release of >80% of the GAG from the articular cartilage over 4 days. The degree of GAG release corresponded to an increase in aggrecanase-generated aggrecan catabolites released into the media and retained within the cartilage. Importantly, there was no evidence for the release of MMP-generated aggrecan metabolites into the medium, nor the accumulation of MMP-generated catabolites within the tissue in these same cultures. Expression of the mRNAs for two MMPs known to be capable of degrading the aggrecan IGD, MMP-3 and MMP-13, was detected. However, increased expression of these MMPs was not correlated with aggrecan degradation. Analyses using porcine cartilage, cultured with or without catabolic stimulation for 12 h to 20 days, indicated that primary cleavage of the IGD by aggrecanase was responsible for release of aggrecan metabolites at both the early and late time points of culture. Cultures of late-stage OA human articular cartilage samples indicated that aggrecanase activity was upregulated in the absence of catabolic stimulation when compared with normal porcine or bovine cartilage. In addition, even in this late-stage degenerate cartilage, aggrecanase and not MMP activity was responsible for the release of the majority of aggrecan from the cartilage. This study demonstrates that the release of aggrecan from both normal and OA cartilage in response to catabolic stimulation in vitro involves a primary cleavage by aggrecanase and not MMPs.Biochemical Journal 11/1999; 344 Pt 1:61-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor