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Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Parise H, Sullivan L, Meigs JB. Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 112, 3066-3072

Division of Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 12/2005; 112(20):3066-72. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.539528
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been well defined in persons with the metabolic syndrome (at least 3 of the following: abdominal adiposity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose). The objective was to investigate risk for CVD, CHD, and T2DM according to metabolic syndrome traits.
The study followed a cohort of 3323 middle-aged adults for the development of new CVD, CHD, and T2DM over an 8-year period. In persons without CVD or T2DM at baseline, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (> or =3 of 5 traits) was 26.8% in men and 16.6% in women. There were 174 incident cases of CVD, 107 of CHD, and 178 of T2DM. In men, the metabolic syndrome age-adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs were RR=2.88 (95% CI 1.99 to 4.16) for CVD, RR=2.54 (95% CI 1.62 to 3.98) for CHD, and RR=6.92 (95% CI 4.47 to 10.81) for T2DM. Event rates and RRs were lower in women for CVD (RR=2.25, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.88) and CHD (RR=1.54, 95% CI 0.68 to 3.53), but they were similar for T2DM (RR=6.90, 95% CI 4.34 to 10.94). Population-attributable risk estimates associated with metabolic syndrome for CVD, CHD, and T2DM were 34%, 29%, and 62% in men and 16%, 8%, 47% in women.
Metabolic syndrome is common and is associated with an increased risk for CVD and T2DM in both sexes. The metabolic syndrome accounts for up to one third of CVD in men and approximately half of new T2DM over 8 years of follow-up.

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    • "Robust evidence showed that individuals diagnosed with MetS using these definitions have a greater risk of significant clinical consequences, the two most prominent of which are the development of T2DM and CVD [12] [13] [14] [15]. Individuals with MetS have a fivefold greater risk of developing T2DM [12], while a systematic review of 37 studies involving more than 170,000 patients has shown that MetS doubles the risk of cardiovascular events [15]. "
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    • "Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of metabolic risk factors including central obesity, elevated blood pressure, increased fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol levels [1]. People with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and type 2 diabetes [2-5], which are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide [6]. However, metabolic syndrome and its deadly consequences can be preventable and treated by maintaining a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet, getting adequate physical activity, and following healthcare providers’ instructions [7,8]. "
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