Association of DISC1/TRAX haplotypes with schizophrenia, reduced prefrontal gray matter, and impaired short- and long-term memory
ABSTRACT Chromosome 1q42 is among several genomic regions showing replicated evidence of linkage with schizophrenia, but the specific susceptibility mechanisms underlying this relationship remain to be identified.
To examine a series of haplotype blocks of single-nucleotide polymorphic markers from a segment of 1q42 spanning the disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and translin-associated factor X (TRAX) genes for association with schizophrenia and several endophenotypic traits thought to be involved in disease pathogenesis.
Population-based twin cohort study.
Two hundred thirty-six subjects, consisting of 7 twin pairs concordant for schizophrenia (6 monozygotic [MZ] and 1 dizygotic [DZ]), 52 pairs discordant for schizophrenia (20 MZ and 32 DZ), and 59 demographically balanced normal pairs (28 MZ and 31 DZ), were drawn from a twin cohort consisting of all of the same-sex twins born in Finland from 1940 through 1957.
Psychiatric diagnosis, performance on neurocognitive tests of short- and long-term memory, and gray matter volume measurements taken from high-resolution magnetic resonance images.
A common haplotype incorporating 3 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers near the translocation break point of DISC1 (odds ratio, 2.6 [P = .02]) and a rare haplotype incorporating 4 markers from the DISC1 and TRAX genes (odds ratio, 13.0 [P = .001]) were significantly overrepresented among individuals with schizophrenia. These haplotypes were also associated with several quantitative endophenotypic traits previously observed to covary with schizophrenia and genetic liability to schizophrenia, including impairments in short- and long-term memory functioning and reduced gray matter density in the prefrontal cortex, as demonstrated using a population-based brain atlas method, with a trend toward association with reduced hippocampal volume.
Specific alleles of the DISC1 and TRAX genes on 1q42 appear to contribute to genetic risk for schizophrenia through disruptive effects on the structure and function of the prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobe, and other brain regions. These effects are consistent with their production of proteins that play roles in neuritic outgrowth, neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and glutamatergic neurotransmission.
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ABSTRACT: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Several previous studies reported that mice with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced L100P mutation in Disc1 showed some schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes. This line originally carried several thousands of ENU-induced point mutations in the C57BL/6 J strain and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the DBA/2 J inbred strain. To investigate the effect of Disc1 L100P, background mutations and SNPs on phenotypic characterization, we performed behavioral analyses to better understand phenotypes of Disc1 L100P mice and comprehensive genetic analyses using whole-exome resequencing and SNP panels to map ENU-induced mutations and strain-specific SNPs, respectively. We found no differences in spontaneous or methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sociability or social novelty preference among Disc1 L100P/L100P, L100P/+ mutants and wild-type littermates. Whole-exome resequencing of the original G1 mouse identified 117 ENU-induced variants, including Disc1 L100P per se. Two females and three males from the congenic L100P strain after backcrossing to C57BL/6 J were deposited to RIKEN BioResource Center in 2008. We genotyped them with DBA/2 J x C57BL/6 J SNPs and found a number of the checked SNPs still remained. These results suggest that causal attribution of the discrepancy in behavioral variance phenotypes to the Disc1 L100P mutant mouse line existing among different research groups needs to be cautiously investigated in further study by taking into account the effect(s) of other ENU-induced mutations and/or SNPs from DBA/2 J.Behavioral and Brain Functions 12/2014; 10(1):45. DOI:10.1186/1744-9081-10-45 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Even though the role of the DICS1 gene as a risk factor for schizophrenia is still unclear, there is substantial evidence from functional and cell biology studies that supports the connection of the gene with schizophrenia. The studies associating the DISC1 gene with schizophrenia in Asian populations are limited to East-Asian populations. Our study examined several DISC1 markers of schizophrenia that were identified in the Caucasian and East-Asian populations in Malaysia and assessed the role of rs2509382, which is located at 11q14.3, the mutual translocation region of the famous DISC1 translocation [t (1; 11) (p42.1; q14.3)]. We genotyped eleven single-neucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) within or related to DISC1 (rs821597, rs821616, rs4658971, rs1538979, rs843979, rs2812385, rs1407599, rs4658890, and rs2509382) using the PCR-RFLP methods. In all, there were 575 participants (225 schizophrenic patients and 350 healthy controls) of either Malay or Chinese ethnicity. The case-control analyses found two SNPs that were associated with schizophrenia [rs4658971 (p=0.030; OR=1.43 (1.35-1.99) and rs1538979-(p=0.036; OR=1.35 (1.02-1.80)] and rs2509382-susceptibility among the males schizophrenics [p=0.0082; OR=2.16 (1.22-3.81)]. This is similar to the meta-analysis findings for the Caucasian populations. The study supports the notion that the DISC1 gene is a marker of schizophrenia susceptibility and that rs2509382 in the mutual DISC1 translocation region is a susceptibility marker for schizophrenia among males in Malaysia. However, the finding of the study is limited due to possible genetic stratification and the small sample size.Psychiatry investigation 01/2015; 12(1):103-11. DOI:10.4306/pi.2015.12.1.103 · 1.15 Impact Factor