Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan.
ABSTRACT Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is one of the most commonly used herbal therapies, and its principal constituent silybin significantly inhibits cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase isoform 1A1 (UGT1A1) in vitro. Here, we investigated whether milk thistle affects the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan, a substrate for CYP3A4 and UGT1A1, in humans.
Six cancer patients were treated with irinotecan (dose, 125 mg/m(2)) given as a 90-minute infusion once every week. Four days before the second dose, patients received 200 mg milk thistle, thrice a day, for 14 consecutive days. Pharmacokinetic studies of irinotecan and its metabolites 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), 7-ethyl-10-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-pyran-2-carboxylic acid]-camptothecin (SN-38-glucuronide), and 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin were done during the first three irinotecan administrations.
Short-term (4 days) or more prolonged intake of milk thistle (12 days) had no significant effect on irinotecan clearance (mean, 31.2 versus 25.4 versus 25.6 L/h; P = 0.16). The area under the curve ratio of SN-38 and irinotecan was slightly decreased by milk thistle (2.58% versus 2.23% versus 2.17%; P = 0.047), whereas the relative extent of glucuronidation of SN-38 was similar (10.8 versus 13.5 versus 13.1; P = 0.64). Likewise, the area under the curve ratio of 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin and irinotecan was unaffected by milk thistle (0.332 versus 0.285 versus 0.337; P = 0.53). The maximum plasma concentrations of silybin ranged between 0.0249 and 0.257 micromol/L.
Silybin concentrations after intake of milk thistle are too low to significantly affect the function of CYP3A4 and UGT1A1 in vivo, indicating that milk thistle is unlikely to alter the disposition of anticancer drugs metabolized by these enzymes.
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ABSTRACT: Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that 'natural' ensures safety, herbal products have been incorporated increasingly into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb-drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb-drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens.Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 12/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts are widely used as a complementary and alternative treatment of various hepatic conditions and a host of other diseases/disorders. The active constituents of milk thistle supplements are believed to be the flavonolignans contained within the extracts. In vitro studies have suggested that some milk thistle components may significantly inhibit specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. However, determining the potential for clinically significant drug interactions with milk thistle products has been complicated by inconsistencies between in vitro and in vivo study results. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized milk thistle supplement on major CYP drug-metabolizing enzymes after a 14-day exposure period. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5 activities were measured by simultaneously administering the four probe drugs, caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and midazolam to 9 healthy volunteers before and after exposure to a standardized milk thistle extract given thrice daily for 14 days. The three most abundant falvonolignans found in plasma, following exposure to milk thistle extracts, were silybin A, silybin B, and isosilybin B. The concentrations of these three major constituents were individually measured in study subjects as potential perpetrators. The peak concentrations and areas under the time-concentration curves of the four probe drugs were determined with the milk thistle administration. Exposure to milk thistle extract produced no significant influence on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5 activities.Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 07/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug metabolizing enzymes within enterocytes constitute a key barrier to xenobiotic entry into the systemic circulation. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice are cornerstone examples of diet-derived xenobiotics that perpetrate interactions with drugs via mechanism-based inhibition of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Relative to intestinal CYP3A4-mediated inhibition, alternate mechanisms underlying dietary substance-drug interactions remain understudied. A working systematic approach was applied to a panel of structurally diverse diet-derived constituents/extracts (n=15) as inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) to identify and characterize additional perpetrators of dietary substance-drug interactions. Using a screening assay involving the non-specific UGT probe substrate 4-methylumbelliferone, human intestinal microsomes, and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing gut-relevant UGT1A isoforms, 14 diet-derived constituents/extracts inhibited UGT activity by >50% in at least one enzyme source, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50 of 13 constituents/extracts (≤10 μM with at least one enzyme source) was well below intestinal tissue concentrations or concentrations in relevant juices, suggesting that these diet-derived substances can inhibit intestinal UGTs at clinically achievable concentrations. Evaluation of inhibitor depletion on IC50 determination demonstrated substantial impact (up to 2.8-fold shift) using silybin A and silybin B, two key flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) as exemplar inhibitors, highlighting an important consideration for interpretation of UGT inhibition in vitro. Results from this work will help refine a working systematic framework to identify dietary substance-drug interactions that warrant advanced modeling and simulation to inform clinical assessment.Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 07/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor