Effects of sodium nitrite on ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat kidney.
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play a key role in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recent studies have shown that nitrite (NO(2)(-)) serves as an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO), particularly in the presence of hypoxia and acidosis. Nanomolar concentrations of NO(2)(-) reduce injury following I/R in the liver and heart in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of NO(2)(-) in renal I/R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral nephrectomy followed by 45 min of ischemia of the contralateral kidney or sham surgery under isoflurane anesthesia. Animals received normal saline, sodium NO(2)(-), or sodium nitrate (NO(3)(-); 1.2 nmol/g body wt ip) at 22.5 min after induction of ischemia or 15 min before ischemia. A separate set of animals received saline, NO(2)(-), or NO(3)(-) (0.12, 1.2, or 12 nmol/g body wt iv) 45 min before ischemia. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were increased following I/R injury but were not significantly different among treatment groups at 24 and 48 h after acute renal injury. Interestingly, NO(3)(-) administration appeared to worsen renal injury. Histological scoring for loss of brush border, tubular necrosis, and red blood cell extravasation showed no significant differences among the treatment groups. The results indicate that, contrary to the protective effects of NO(2)(-) in I/R injury of the liver and heart, NO(2)(-) does not provide protection in renal I/R injury and suggest a unique metabolism of NO(2)(-) in the kidney.
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ABSTRACT: Renal injury induced by brain death is characterized by ischemia and inflammation, and limiting it is a therapeutic goal that could improve outcomes in kidney transplantation. Brain death resulted in decreased circulating nitrite levels and increased infiltrating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney. Since nitrite stimulates nitric oxide signaling in ischemic tissues, we tested whether nitrite therapy was beneficial in a rat model of brain death followed by kidney transplantation. Nitrite, administered over 2 h of brain death, blunted the increased inflammation without affecting brain death-induced alterations in hemodynamics. Kidneys were transplanted after 2 h of brain death and renal function followed over 7 days. Allografts collected from nitrite-treated brain-dead rats showed significant improvement in function over the first 2 to 4 days after transplantation compared with untreated brain-dead animals. Gene microarray analysis after 2 h of brain death without or with nitrite therapy showed that the latter significantly altered the expression of about 400 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that multiple signaling pathways were affected by nitrite, including those related to hypoxia, transcription, and genes related to humoral immune responses. Thus, nitrite therapy attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by regulating responses to ischemia and inflammation, ultimately leading to better post-transplant kidney function.Kidney International 04/2012; 82(3):304-13. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is the most common cause of early mortality following lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that nitrite, an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO), may protect lung grafts from IRI. Rat lung grafts were stored in preservation solution at 4°C for 6 hours. Both grafts and recipients were treated with nitrite. Nitrite treatment was associated with significantly higher levels of tissue oxygenation, lower levels of cytokines and neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, lower myeloperoxidase activity, reduced oxidative injury and increased cGMP levels in grafts than in the controls. Treatment with either a nitric oxide scavenger or a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor diminished the beneficial effects of nitrite and decreased cGMP concentrations. These results suggest that nitric oxide, generated from nitrite, is the molecule responsible for the effects of nitrite via the nitric oxide/sGC/cGMP pathway. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, abrogated the protective effects of nitrite, suggesting that XOR is a key enzyme in the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide. In vitro experiments demonstrated that nitrite prevented apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial cells. Nitrite also exhibits longer survival rate in recipients than control. In conclusion, nitrite inhibits lung IRI following cold preservation and had higher survival rate in LTx model.American Journal of Transplantation 09/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bioactive NO carriers in circulating blood formed during NO inhalation selectively distribute blood flow to areas in need, and may thus improve collateral perfusion to the area-at-risk in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Here, we tested the hypothesis that NO inhalation during the ischemic phase of AMI may improve left ventricular function and reduce infarct size in rats. Following left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion, rats received 50 ppm NO for 2 h of ischemia, during subsequent 3 h of reperfusion, or for 5 h of ischemia and reperfusion. Effects of inhaled NO were compared to those of intravenous nitrite as a putative carrier formed during NO inhalation. Downstream signaling via soluble guanylate cyclase was tested by inhibition with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). NO inhalation during myocardial ischemia increased left ventricular systolic pressure, contractility, relaxation, and cardiac output, and reduced myocardial infarction size and area-at-risk as compared to untreated controls. NO inhalation during the reperfusion phase caused a comparable protective effect. Combined inhalation during ischemia and reperfusion did not further improve left ventricular hemodynamics, but had an additive protective effect on the myocardial area-at-risk. NO inhalation increased circulating nitrite levels, and mimicking of this effect by intravenous nitrite infusion achieved similar protection as NO inhalation during myocardial ischemia, while ODQ blocked the protective NO effect. Inhalation of NO during myocardial ischemia improves left ventricular function and reduces infarct size by mechanisms that increase levels of circulating nitrite and involve soluble guanylate cyclase. NO inhalation may represent a promising early intervention in AMI.European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 06/2012; 38(8):1381-91. · 5.17 Impact Factor