Effects of sodium nitrite on ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat kidney.
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play a key role in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recent studies have shown that nitrite (NO(2)(-)) serves as an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO), particularly in the presence of hypoxia and acidosis. Nanomolar concentrations of NO(2)(-) reduce injury following I/R in the liver and heart in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of NO(2)(-) in renal I/R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral nephrectomy followed by 45 min of ischemia of the contralateral kidney or sham surgery under isoflurane anesthesia. Animals received normal saline, sodium NO(2)(-), or sodium nitrate (NO(3)(-); 1.2 nmol/g body wt ip) at 22.5 min after induction of ischemia or 15 min before ischemia. A separate set of animals received saline, NO(2)(-), or NO(3)(-) (0.12, 1.2, or 12 nmol/g body wt iv) 45 min before ischemia. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were increased following I/R injury but were not significantly different among treatment groups at 24 and 48 h after acute renal injury. Interestingly, NO(3)(-) administration appeared to worsen renal injury. Histological scoring for loss of brush border, tubular necrosis, and red blood cell extravasation showed no significant differences among the treatment groups. The results indicate that, contrary to the protective effects of NO(2)(-) in I/R injury of the liver and heart, NO(2)(-) does not provide protection in renal I/R injury and suggest a unique metabolism of NO(2)(-) in the kidney.
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ABSTRACT: Cl(2) gas toxicity is complex and occurs during and after exposure, leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and reactive airway syndrome (RAS). Moreover, Cl(2) exposure can occur in diverse situations encompassing mass casualty scenarios, highlighting the need for postexposure therapies that are efficacious and amenable to rapid and easy administration. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a single dose of nitrite (1mg/kg) to decrease ALI when administered to rats via intraperitoneal (ip) or intramuscular (im) injection 30min after Cl(2) exposure. Exposure of rats to Cl(2) gas (400ppm, 30min) significantly increased ALI and caused RAS 6-24h postexposure as indexed by BAL sampling of lung surface protein and polymorphonucleocytes (PMNs) and increased airway resistance and elastance before and after methacholine challenge. Intraperitoneal nitrite decreased Cl(2)-dependent increases in BAL protein but not PMNs. In contrast im nitrite decreased BAL PMN levels without decreasing BAL protein in a xanthine oxidoreductase-dependent manner. Histological evaluation of airways 6h postexposure showed significant bronchial epithelium exfoliation and inflammatory injury in Cl(2)-exposed rats. Both ip and im nitrite improved airway histology compared to Cl(2) gas alone, but more coverage of the airway by cuboidal or columnar epithelium was observed with im compared to ip nitrite. Airways were rendered more sensitive to methacholine-induced resistance and elastance after Cl(2) gas exposure. Interestingly, im nitrite, but not ip nitrite, significantly decreased airway sensitivity to methacholine challenge. Further evaluation and comparison of im and ip therapy showed a twofold increase in circulating nitrite levels with the former, which was associated with reversal of post-Cl(2) exposure-dependent increases in circulating leukocytes. Halving the im nitrite dose resulted in no effect in PMN accumulation but significant reduction of BAL protein levels, indicating a distinct nitrite dose dependence for inhibition of Cl(2)-dependent lung permeability and inflammation. These data highlight the potential for nitrite as a postexposure therapeutic for Cl(2) gas-induced lung injury and also suggest that administration modality is a key consideration in nitrite therapeutics.Free radical biology & medicine 08/2012; 53(7):1431-9. · 5.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Glycine, pyruvate, resveratrol, and nitrite are well-known protective compounds among others in ischemic tissue injury. Here, we compared their effects in acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock in rats to assess whether inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine response is a prerequisite for their protective actions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats (six or eight per group) were anesthetized, received LPS as an intravenous bolus (2.5 mg/kg), and were observed for 5 h. Glycine, sodium pyruvate, resveratrol, and sodium nitrite were continuously infused starting 30 min before LPS administration. Parameters included histopathologic changes, organ-specific cytokine levels, plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations, and time courses of biomonitoring parameters, marker enzyme activities, and plasma cytokine concentrations. RESULTS: Glycine, pyruvate, resveratrol, and nitrite enhanced arterial blood pressure after LPS-induced shock. Also, parameters reflecting tissue ischemia were significantly improved and plasma markers of organ injury ameliorated by all substances. Of the plasma cytokine concentrations increased by LPS, some were differently decreased or even further increased by the substances. None of them reduced the elevated plasma nitrite and nitrate concentration. Glycine diminished the increases in tissue cytokine levels organ specifically, pyruvate decreased some cytokine concentrations in all organs, and nitrite significantly affected only a few cytokine concentrations in some organs, whereas the levels of many cytokines were raised by resveratrol. All substances except resveratrol decreased granulocyte infiltrates in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrate that glycine, pyruvate, resveratrol, and nitrite protect against LPS-induced shock and tissue injury (cell death) in rats and suggest that inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine response is not mandatory for their protective actions.Journal of Surgical Research 02/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is the most common cause of early mortality following lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that nitrite, an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO), may protect lung grafts from IRI. Rat lung grafts were stored in preservation solution at 4°C for 6 hours. Both grafts and recipients were treated with nitrite. Nitrite treatment was associated with significantly higher levels of tissue oxygenation, lower levels of cytokines and neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, lower myeloperoxidase activity, reduced oxidative injury and increased cGMP levels in grafts than in the controls. Treatment with either a nitric oxide scavenger or a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor diminished the beneficial effects of nitrite and decreased cGMP concentrations. These results suggest that nitric oxide, generated from nitrite, is the molecule responsible for the effects of nitrite via the nitric oxide/sGC/cGMP pathway. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, abrogated the protective effects of nitrite, suggesting that XOR is a key enzyme in the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide. In vitro experiments demonstrated that nitrite prevented apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial cells. Nitrite also exhibits longer survival rate in recipients than control. In conclusion, nitrite inhibits lung IRI following cold preservation and had higher survival rate in LTx model.American Journal of Transplantation 09/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor