HIV-infected cells are major inducers of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon production, maturation, and migration.

Department of Medicine, Division Hematology/Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0128, USA.
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 01/2006; 343(2):256-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), natural type-1 interferon (IFN) producing cells, could play a role in the innate anti-HIV immune response. Previous reports indicated that PDC IFN production is induced by HIV. Our results show a more robust IFN induction when purified PDC (>95%) were exposed to HIV-infected cells. This effect was not observed with non-viable cells, DNA, and RNA extracted from infected cells, and viral proteins. The response was blocked by anti-CD4 and neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies as well as soluble CD4. IFN induction by HIV-infected cells was also prevented by low-dose chloroquine, which inhibits endosomal acidification. PDC IFN release resulted in reduced HIV production by infected CD4+ cells, supporting an anti-HIV activity of PDC. Stimulated CD4+ cells induced PDC activation and maturation; markers for PDC migration (CCR7) were enhanced by HIV-infected CD4+ cells only. This latter finding could explain the decline in circulating PDC in HIV-infected individuals.

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    Frontiers in Immunology 09/2014; 5:419.
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) expressing FcγRIIa are antigen-presenting cells able to link innate and adaptive immunity and producing various cytokines and chemokines. Although highly restricted, they are able to replicate HIV-1. We determined the activity of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and non-neutralizing inhibitory antibodies (NNIAb) on the infection of primary pDC by HIV-1 primary isolates and analyzed cytokines and chemokines production. Neutralization assay was performed with primary pDC in the presence of serial antibodies (Ab) concentrations. In parallel, we measured the release of cytokines and chemokines by ELISA and CBA Flex assay. We found that NAb, but not NNIAb, inhibit HIV-1 replication in pDC. This inhibitory activity was lower than that detected for myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) infection and independent of FcγRIIa expressed on pDC. Despite the complete protection, IFN-α production was detected in the supernatant of pDC treated with NAb VRC01, 4E10, PGT121, 10-1074, 10E8, or polyclonal IgG44 but not with NAb b12. Production of MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α by pDC was also maintained in the presence of 4E10, b12 and VRC01. These findings suggest that pDC can be protected from HIV-1 infection by both NAb and IFN-α release triggered by the innate immune response during infection.
    Scientific Reports 08/2014; 4:5845. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recognition of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected hepatocyes and interferon (IFN) induction are critical in antiviral immune response. We hypothesized that cell-cell contact between plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and HCV-infected cells was required for IFN-α induction through the involvement of cell-surface molecules. Coculture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with genotype 1a full-length (FL) HCV genomic replicon cells or genotype 2a Japanese fulminant hepatitis type 1 (JFH-1) virus-infected hepatoma cells (JFH-1), and not with uninfected hepatoma cells (Huh7.5), induced IFN-α production. Depletion of pDCs from PBMCs attenuated IFN-α release, and purified pDCs produced high levels of IFN-α after coculture with FL replicons or JFH-1-infected cells. IFN-α induction by HCV-containing hepatoma cells required viral replication, direct cell-cell contact with pDCs, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. We determined that the tetraspanin proteins, CD81 and CD9, and not other HCV entry receptors, were required for IFN-α induction in pDCs by HCV-infected hepatoma cells. Disruption of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, the localization site of CD81, or inhibition of the CD81 downstream molecule, Rac GTPase, inhibited IFN-α production. IFN-α induction involved HCV RNA and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7. IFN-α production by HCV-infected hepatoma cells was decreased in pDCs from HCV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls. We found that preexposure of healthy PBMCs to HCV viral particles attenuated IFN-α induction by HCV-infected hepatoma cells or TLR ligands, and this inhibitory effect could be prevented by an anti-HCV envelope glycoprotein 2–blocking antibody. Conclusion: Our novel data show that recognition of HCV-infected hepatoma cells by pDCs involves CD81- and CD9-associated membrane microdomains and induces potent IFN-α production. (HEPATOLOGY 2013;58:940–949)
    Hepatology 09/2013; 58(3). · 11.19 Impact Factor

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May 21, 2014

Barbara Schmidt