Energy requirements during pregnancy and lactation

USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.48). 11/2005; 8(7A):1010-27. DOI: 10.1079/PHN2005793
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate the energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women consistent with optimal pregnancy outcome and adequate milk production.
Total energy cost of pregnancy was estimated using the factorial approach from pregnancy-induced increments in basal metabolic rate measured by respiratory calorimetry or from increments in total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labelled water method, plus energy deposition attributed to protein and fat accretion during pregnancy.
Database on changes in basal metabolic rate and total energy expenditure during pregnancy, and increments in protein based on measurements of total body potassium, and fat derived from multi-compartment body composition models was compiled. Energy requirements during lactation were derived from rates of milk production, energy density of human milk, and energy mobilisation from tissues.
Healthy pregnant and lactating women.
The estimated total cost of pregnancy for women with a mean gestational weight gain of 12.0 kg, was 321 or 325 MJ, distributed as 375, 1200, 1950 kJ day(-1), for the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. For exclusive breastfeeding, the energy cost of lactation was 2.62 MJ day(-1) based on a mean milk production of 749 g day(-1), energy density of milk of 2.8 kJ g(-1), and energetic efficiency of 0.80. In well-nourished women, this may be subsidised by energy mobilisation from tissues on the order of 0.72 MJ day(-1), resulting in a net increment of 1.9 MJ day(-1) over non-pregnant, non-lactating energy requirements.
Recommendations for energy intake of pregnant and lactating women should be updated based on recently available data.

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Available from: Janet King, Aug 17, 2015
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    • "In our study, crude analyses indicated that both short (≤11 mo) and long (≥60 mo) intervals were associated with elevated OR for LBW in comparison to the interval equal to 18-23 months, but after adjustment for maternal and infant characteristics these associations did not reach the level of statistical significance. It should be noted that IPI is not the best measure of whether a mother has had a chance to recover from the pregnancy, in terms of replenishing her nutritional status, because nutritional burden on the mother between pregnancies depends on the extent of breastfeeding (Butte and King, 2005; Dufour and Sauther, 2002; Jasienska, 2013). It was suggested that the " recuperative interval " (duration of the non-pregnant, non-lactating interval) instead, would be a more sensitive measure of maternal ability to recover from the previous reproductive event (Dewey and Cohen, 2007). "
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    American Journal of Human Biology 03/2015; in press. DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22708 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Evidence showed that child-bearing during adolescence hinder growth and nutritional status of the adolescent girls (Rah et al., 2008). Nutrition in pregnancy demands extra care due to the growing foetus, placing a high demand on the mother's energy, protein and micronutrients (Butte and King, 2005). Good nutrition is the best way to prevent anaemia during pregnancy but young still-growing women are highly disadvantaged due to competition for nutrients between the mother and the foetus (Scholl et al., 1994). "
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    • "According to a meta-analysis of long-term weight loss in adults in general, approximately half of the weight loss achieved in successful weight loss programs was regained when the first year after treatment ended [7]. Considering the increased energy requirements of lactation [8,9] as well as new routines and new habits in relation to the caring of the newborn, the postpartum period may be a good opportunity to improve eating habits and lose weight in a more sustainable manner. "
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