Toll-like receptor-7 modulates immune complex glomerulonephritis.
ABSTRACT Viral infections may trigger immune complex glomerulonephritis via Toll-like receptors (TLR), as certain TLR trigger immunity upon recognition of viral nucleic acids. On the basis of previous findings regarding viral double-stranded RNA and TLR3 in experimental lupus erythematosus, a similar role for TLR7 that recognizes viral single-stranded RNA was hypothesized. Immunostaining of kidney sections of nephritic MRLlpr/lpr mice revealed TLR7 expression in infiltrating ER-HR3-positive macrophages and few CD11c-positive dendritic cells but not in glomerular mesangial cells as observed for TLR3. This finding was consistent with the distribution pattern of intravenously injected single-stranded RNA in nephritic MRLlpr/lpr mice. TLR7 ligation activated monocytes and dendritic cells, both isolated from MRLlpr/lpr mice, to secrete IFN-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-6, and CCL2. In vivo, a single injection of the TLR7 ligand imiquimod increased serum levels of IL-12p70, IFN-alpha, and IL-6. A course of 25 microg of imiquimod given every other day from week 16 to 18 of age aggravated lupus nephritis in MRLlpr/lpr mice. This was associated with increased glomerular immune complex deposits as well as interstitial expression of CCL2 in imiquimod-treated MRLlpr/lpr mice. Different types of viral nucleic acids seem to modulate systemic autoimmunity through specific interactions with their respective TLR. Different TLR expression profiles on immune cell subsets and nonimmune parenchymal cell types determine the molecular mechanisms involved in viral infection-associated exacerbation of lupus nephritis and possibly other types of immune complex glomerulonephritis.
Article: Type I interferons produced by resident renal cells may promote end-organ disease in autoantibody-mediated glomerulonephritis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increased Type I IFNs or IFN-I have been associated with human systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly augmenting or negating IFN-I activity in murine lupus not only modulates systemic autoimmunity, but also impacts lupus nephritis, suggesting that IFN-I may be acting at the level of the end-organ. We find resident renal cells to be a dominant source of IFN-I in an experimental model of autoantibody-induced nephritis. In this model, augmenting IFN-I amplified antibody-triggered nephritis, whereas ablating IFN-I activity ameliorated disease. One mechanism through which increased IFN-I drives immune-mediated nephritis might be operative through increased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, though this hypothesis needs further validation. Collectively, these studies indicate that an important contribution of IFN-I toward the disease pathology seen in systemic autoimmunity may be exercised at the level of the end-organ.The Journal of Immunology 11/2009; 183(10):6831-8. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Interferon-lambda1 induces peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived chemokines secretion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: its correlation with disease activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving multiple organ systems. Previous studies have suggested that interferon-lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), a type III interferon, plays an immunomodulatory role. In this study we investigated its role in SLE, including its correlation with disease activity, organ disorder and production of chemokines. We determined levels of IFN-λ1 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum protein levels in patients with SLE using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Further, we detected the concentration of IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secreted by PBMC under the stimulation of IFN-λ1 using ELISA. IFN-λ1 mRNA and serum protein levels were higher in patients with SLE compared with healthy controls. Patients with active disease showed higher IFN-λ1 mRNA and serum protein levels compared with those with inactive disease as well. Serum IFN-λ1 levels were positively correlated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), anti-dsDNA antibody, C-reactive protein (CRP) and negatively correlated with complement 3. Serum IFN-λ1 levels were higher in SLE patients with renal involvement and arthritis compared with patients without the above-mentioned manifestations. IFN-λ1 with different concentrations displayed different effects on the secretion of the chemokines IP-10, MIG and IL-8. These findings indicate that IFN-λ1 is probably involved in the renal disorder and arthritis progression of SLE and associated with disease activity. Moreover, it probably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE by stimulating secretion of the chemokines IP-10, MIG and IL-8. Thus, IFN-λ1 may provide a novel research target for the pathogenesis and therapy of SLE.Arthritis research & therapy 06/2011; 13(3):R88. · 4.27 Impact Factor
Article: Pathway of Toll-like receptor 7/B cell activating factor/B cell activating factor receptor plays a role in immune thrombocytopenia in vivo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by anti-platelet autoantibody-mediated platelet destruction. Antigen-presenting cell (APC) dysfunction is considered to play crucial roles in ITP. However, how APC affects autoreactive B cells in ITP is still unknown. Using a mouse model of immune thrombocytopenia, we demonstrated an increase in levels of TLR7 in splenic mononuclear cells (SMCs). Using both TLR7 agonist and TLR7 silencing lentivirus, we found stimulation of TLR7 decreased platelet counts and increased levels of platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG) in ITP mice, which correlates TLR7 with platelet destruction by autoantibodies. Levels of serum BAFF increased significantly in ITP mice and stimulation of TLR7 promoted secretion of BAFF. Among the three BAFF receptors, only BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) increased in ITP mice. However, activation of TLR7 showed no effect on the expression of BAFF receptors. These findings indicate that upregulation of TLR7 may augment BAFF secretion by APC and through ligation of BAFF-R promote autoreactive B cell survival and thus anti-platelet autoantibody production. The pathway of TLR7/BAFF/BAFF-R provides us with an explanation of how activation of APC affects autoantibody production by B cells in ITP and thus might provide a reasonable therapeutic strategy for ITP.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22708. · 4.09 Impact Factor