Metabolism, lifestyle and bipolar affective disorder.
ABSTRACT Lifestyle, illness and treatment factors in people with bipolar disorder (BD) may confer additional risk of morbidity and mortality to the increasing rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular mortality in the general population.The aim of this review is to examine whether the risk of obesity and related morbidity and mortality are raised in BD, and possible contributory effects of lifestyle, illness and treatment factors to this risk.Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane Collaboration for relevant studies followed by a critical review of literature was carried out.Mortality from cardiovascular causes and pulmonary embolism (standardized mortality ratio approximately 2.0), and morbidity from obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus may be increased in BD compared to the general population. Reduced exercise and poor diet, frequent depressive episodes, comorbidity with substance misuse and poor quality general medical care contribute to the additional risk of these medical problems in people with BD. There is no evidence that patients with BD are more sensitive than other patients to weight gain and medical problems associated with long-term use of psychotropic medication; in fact long-term treatment with lithium, antipsychotics and tricyclic antidepressants may reduce overall mortality. Psychiatrists, general practitioners and other health professionals should work together to systematically assess and manage weight gain and related medical problems to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity in BD. There is insufficient evidence to associate any of these factors with specific drug treatments. More research is required to understand how BD changes the risk for physical health comorbidity.
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ABSTRACT: ProblemDespite calls for physical activity (PA) to be prescribed to individuals with Bipolar Disorder (BD) as a means of improving physical and mental health there has been no systematic review of the potential health risks and benefits of increased PA for individuals with BD. This paper presents the first such review.Method Systematic searches of six databases were conducted from database inception until January 2009, using a range of search terms to reflect both PA and BD. Studies were subsequently considered eligible if they reported on quantitative studies investigating the effect of PA upon some aspect of physical or mental health in individuals with BD.ResultsOf the 484 articles retrieved, six studies met the inclusion criteria.DiscussionFew studies have considered how PA may impact on the physical and mental health of people with BD. Nevertheless existing studies do suggest that physical activity interventions may be feasible and have a role in promoting mental health in this population. We discuss methodological, practical and ethical challenges to research in this area, and outline three research questions that future work should seek to address.Conclusions Research into the efficacy and safety of PA as an intervention in BD is required to support the development of detailed, population-specific guidelines.Mental Health and Physical Activity 12/2009; 2(2):86–94. DOI:10.1016/j.mhpa.2009.09.001
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ABSTRACT: People with serious mental illness have higher rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. This study describes health practitioners' views on their role and confidence assessing and managing cardiovascular risk. The key findings were of a widespread acknowledgement of the need to undertake systematic risk assessment and offer structured approaches to risk factor management. Barriers of client engagement, lack of good systems and poor information sharing between primary and secondary care providers were identified. Solutions discussed included a collaborative care model or the integration of physical health services, perhaps a general practitioner-led clinic, within the secondary care setting. Whilst there is a need to identify an optimal care model there is an even greater need to take some rather than no action.Community Mental Health Journal 09/2009; 46(6):531-9. DOI:10.1007/s10597-009-9237-0 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is a chronic and often devastating illness that may go undiagnosed because of its complex and diverse presentation. Clinicians can provide psychological treatments, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy, that can reduce the frequency, severity, and duration of manic and depressive episodes. Because bipolar disorder is characterized by high degrees of comorbidity and high rates of medical complications, the clinician will frequently need to implement other treatments targeted to comorbid conditions, such as panic, generalized anxiety, substance abuse, and personality disorders. This article introduces the issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session devoted to the treatment of bipolar disorder. We describe the cognitive styles and personal vulnerabilities that pose greater risk for bipolar disorder. Three evidence-based psychological treatments (interpersonal social rhythm therapy, family-focused treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy) and current pharmacological treatments are examined and illustrated. Finally, we review the effectiveness and practice implications of a variety of treatments for this severe and underresearched disorder.Journal of Clinical Psychology 05/2007; 63(5):417-24. DOI:10.1002/jclp.20360 · 2.12 Impact Factor