Patterns of reduced nipple aspirate fluid production and ductal lavage cellularity in women at high risk for breast cancer

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
Breast cancer research: BCR (Impact Factor: 5.49). 02/2005; 7(6):R1017-22. DOI: 10.1186/bcr1335
Source: PubMed


Nipple aspiration is a noninvasive technique for obtaining breast fluids from the duct openings of the nipple for the evaluation of abnormalities associated with breast cancer. Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) can be elicited from 48 to 94% of healthy women, and its production has been linked to an increased relative risk for breast cancer development. NAF production has been used in studies to guide the selection of ducts for ductal lavage, a procedure in which ducts are cannulated and flushed with saline to collect cells. In a previous multicenter trial to evaluate intraductal approaches in women at high-risk for breast cancer, NAF production was observed in 84% of the subjects. However, we observed a significantly lower proportion of fluid-yielding subjects in a similar series of high-risk women. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with this reduction.
Nipple aspiration was performed on 33 high-risk women (defined as having a 5-year Gail model index of more than 1.7, a personal or family history of breast cancer, and/or a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation) to identify ductal orifices for lavage procedures. Lavage was performed on all fluid-yielding ducts and on nine non-fluid-yielding ducts.
Fluid-yielding ducts were identified in 12 of 33 (36%) of the subjects in the present series, compared with 16 of 19 (84%) of the subjects undergoing identical procedures at our facility during a multicenter trial (P = 0.001). Reduced NAF yields were associated with postmenopausal status (P = 0.02), BRCA germline mutations (P = 0.004), and risk reduction therapies, including bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and/or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs; P = 0.009). All nine (100%) of the ductal lavage specimens collected from non-fluidyielding ducts were acellular, in comparison with 3 of 13 specimens from fluid-yielding ducts (P < .001).
Analysis of high-risk women in the present series revealed patterns of reduced NAF production and ductal lavage cellularity compared with a previous multicenter trial. The present series included more BRCA-positive women, many of whom had undergone BSO and/or were using SERMs. Our data suggest that endocrine mechanisms associated with these risk-reducing therapies may be related to patterns of diminished breast fluid production.

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    • "For breast cancer biomarker discovery, proteins and peptides have been identified in breast cancer cell lines [5-7], nipple aspirate fluid [8,9], and normal, benign, premalignant, and malignant breast tissue [10-13], in addition to serum and plasma [1,4,14]. Numerous proteomics-based studies of serum and plasma have reported discriminatory peptide/protein ion peaks, either as identified proteins or on the basis of their mass/charge (m/z) values, for breast cancer diagnosis or prognosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Serum profiling using proteomic techniques has great potential to detect biomarkers that might improve diagnosis and predict outcome for breast cancer patients (BC). This study used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins in sera from BC and healthy volunteers (HV), with the goal of developing a new prognostic biomarker panel. Methods Training set serum samples from 99 BC and 51 HV subjects were applied to four adsorptive chip surfaces (anion-exchange, cation-exchange, hydrophobic, and metal affinity) and analyzed by time-of-flight MS. For validation, 100 independent BC serum samples and 70 HV samples were analyzed similarly. Cluster analysis of protein spectra was performed to identify protein patterns related to BC and HV groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to develop a protein panel to distinguish breast cancer sera from healthy sera, and its prognostic potential was evaluated. Results From 51 protein peaks that were significantly up- or downregulated in BC patients by univariate analysis, binary logistic regression yielded five protein peaks that together classified BC and HV with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area-under-the-curve value of 0.961. Validation on an independent patient cohort confirmed the five-protein parameter (ROC value 0.939). The five-protein parameter showed positive association with large tumor size (P = 0.018) and lymph node involvement (P = 0.016). By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, immunoprecipitation and western blotting the proteins were identified as a fragment of apolipoprotein H (ApoH), ApoCI, complement C3a, transthyretin, and ApoAI. Kaplan-Meier analysis on 181 subjects after median follow-up of >5 years demonstrated that the panel significantly predicted disease-free survival (P = 0.005), its efficacy apparently greater in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (n = 50, P = 0.003) compared to ER-positive (n = 131, P = 0.161), although the influence of ER status needs to be confirmed after longer follow-up. Conclusions Protein mass profiling by MS has revealed five serum proteins which, in combination, can distinguish between serum from women with breast cancer and healthy control subjects with high sensitivity and specificity. The five-protein panel significantly predicts recurrence-free survival in women with ER-negative tumors and may have value in the management of these patients.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 06/2014; 16(3):R63. DOI:10.1186/bcr3676 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    • "Collection of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) is noninvasive, inexpensive, and much easier to obtain than more invasive procedures like ductal lavage. However, it has serious limitations for routine diagnostic use as acquisition rates vary from 25–67% (Fabian et al., 2005; Higgins et al., 2005), and rates are even lower for older women and those of Asian descent (Wrensch et al., 1990). In general, for most collected NAF samples, only microliter volumes are obtained. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, multiple genetic and histological approaches have accelerated development of new breast cancer diagnostics and treatment paradigms. Multiple distinct genetic subtypes of breast cancers have been defined, and this has progressively led toward more personalized medicine in regard to treatment options. There still remains a deficiency in the development of molecular diagnostic assays that can be used for breast cancer detection and pretherapy clinical decisions. In particular, the type of cancer-specific biomarker typified by a serum or tissue-derived protein. Progress in this regard has been minimal, especially in comparison to the rapid advancements in genetic and histological assays for breast cancers. In this review, some potential reasons for this large gap in developing protein biomarkers will be discussed, as well as new strategies for improving these approaches. Improvements in the study design of protein biomarker discovery strategies in relation to the genetic subtypes and histology of breast cancers is also emphasized. The current successes in use of genetic and histological assays for breast cancer diagnostics are summarized, and in that context, the current limitations of the types of breast cancer-related clinical samples available for protein biomarker assay development are discussed. Based on these limitations, research strategies emphasizing identification of glycoprotein biomarkers in blood and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tissues are described.
    Omics: a journal of integrative biology 02/2011; 15(5):251-9. DOI:10.1089/omi.2010.0120 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    • "NAF can be recovered from 48% to 94% of women and represents a minimally invasive technique for obtaining breast fluids for the evaluation of abnormalities associated with breast cancer [10-14]. NAF production has been linked to an increased relative risk for breast cancer development [15], and the evaluation of NAF as a potential screening tool for the detection of breast cancer has been the subject of intense investigation [16-18]. NAF from women with no clinical evidence of breast tumors has also been analyzed to detect mtDNA mutations and for genetic variants (BRACA1) that are associated with breast cancer development [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been associated with many disorders, including breast cancer. Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) from symptomatic women could potentially serve as a minimally invasive sample for breast cancer screening by detecting somatic mutations in this biofluid. This study is aimed at 1) demonstrating the feasibility of NAF recovery from symptomatic women, 2) examining the feasibility of sequencing the entire mitochondrial genome from NAF samples, 3) cross validation of the Human mitochondrial resequencing array 2.0 (MCv2), and 4) assessing the somatic mtDNA mutation rate in benign breast diseases as a potential tool for monitoring early somatic mutations associated with breast cancer. NAF and blood were obtained from women with symptomatic benign breast conditions, and we successfully assessed the mutation load in the entire mitochondrial genome of 19 of these women. DNA extracts from NAF were sequenced using the mitochondrial resequencing array MCv2 and by capillary electrophoresis (CE) methods as a quality comparison. Sequencing was performed independently at two institutions and the results compared. The germline mtDNA sequence determined using DNA isolated from the patient's blood (control) was compared to the mutations present in cellular mtDNA recovered from patient's NAF. From the cohort of 28 women recruited for this study, NAF was successfully recovered from 23 participants (82%). Twenty two (96%) of the women produced fluids from both breasts. Twenty NAF samples and corresponding blood were chosen for this study. Except for one NAF sample, the whole mtgenome was successfully amplified using a single primer pair, or three pairs of overlapping primers. Comparison of MCv2 data from the two institutions demonstrates 99.200% concordance. Moreover, MCv2 data was 99.999% identical to CE sequencing, indicating that MCv2 is a reliable method to rapidly sequence the entire mtgenome. Four NAF samples contained somatic mutations. We have demonstrated that NAF is a suitable material for mtDNA sequence analysis using the rapid and reliable MCv2. Somatic mtDNA mutations present in NAF of women with benign breast diseases could potentially be used as risk factors for progression to breast cancer, but this will require a much larger study with clinical follow up.
    BMC Cancer 02/2008; 8(1):95. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-8-95 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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