High-risk sexual behavior in adults with genotypically proven antiretroviral-resistant HIV infection.
ABSTRACT The substantial frequency of drug resistance in persons recently infected with HIV implies exposure among HIV-uninfected individuals to HIV-infected persons with drug-resistant virus. Although there is an increasing emphasis on understanding high-risk behavior among HIV-infected patients, little work has focused on those with drug-resistant virus.
We examined antiretroviral-treated patients with drug resistance in the Study of the Consequences of the Protease Inhibitor Era, a clinic-based cohort of HIV-infected adults. Sexual behavior was ascertained by self-administered questionnaire. Genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing was performed on isolates from participants with a plasma HIV RNA level > or =100 copies/mL.
Among 279 participants on antiretroviral therapy, 168 (60%) had genotypic resistance to at least 1 drug. In those with drug resistance, 27% of men who have sex with men (MSM) and 11% of heterosexual men and women reported at least 1 episode of unprotected penile-anal or penile-vaginal intercourse in the previous 4 months; 17% of MSM and 6% of heterosexual participants reported unprotected intercourse with an HIV-uninfected or status unknown partner. In a multivariable model of predictors of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with an HIV-uninfected or status unknown partner, there was strong evidence for an effect of younger age, depression, and sildenafil use and moderate evidence for frequent alcohol use.
Among HIV-infected patients with drug-resistant viremia, there is a substantial prevalence of high-risk sex with HIV-uninfected partners. The presence of definable risk factors for unsafe sex suggests a role for targeted rather than broad intervention, particularly when resources are limited.
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ABSTRACT: HIV transmission risk is increased during antiretroviral therapy (ART) use if individuals are not virologically suppressed and engage in high risk transmission behavior. Baseline data of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with recent history of risky behavior on ART for ≥3 months (n = 139) were evaluated to assess predictors of detectable viremia and HIV transmission risk-taking behavior. Twenty-four subjects had viral load (VL) >75 copies/mL and 12 had VL >1000 copies/mL. In multivariable regression analyses, subjects with VL >75 copies/mL were more likely to be Black (OR = 4.48, p = 0.007), have lower CD4 cells (OR = 0.727, p = 0.005) and have used methamphetamines in the last month (OR = 6.64, p = 0.019). Subjects with VL >1000 copies/mL were more likely to have lower CD4 cells (OR = 0.494, p = 0.004), report <90% adherence (OR = 7.94; p = 0.046) and have used methamphetamines in the last month (OR = 10.01, p = 0.034). Subjects with VL >75 copies/mL with the greatest transmission risk behavior (n = 14) were more likely to be Black (OR = 8.00, p = 0.006), have lower CD4 cells (OR = 0.657, p = 0.009) and have used methamphetamines in the last month (OR = 5.20, p = 0.042). High risk HIV transmission behavior with viremia occurred in 10% of the cohort. Future efforts to reduce HIV transmission among MSM on ART will require combined interventions that target risk-taking behaviors and substance use.International Journal of STD & AIDS 01/2014; 25(10). DOI:10.1177/0956462413518500 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combined antiretroviral therapy is now acknowledged for preventing new HIV infections, besides decreasing mortality and morbidity. However, in many Latin America countries the epidemic is still driven by unprotected sexual intercourse. This study aims to describe sexual practices related to HIV/STD and to evaluate factors associated to unprotected sex among men who have sex with women (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) under care at a reference center for HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional study, nested in a Brazilian clinical cohort, evaluated the sexual practices of 404 sexually active HIV-positive MSW and men who have MSM. Approximately 30 % of them reported unprotected sexual practices during the 6 months prior to the interview. Most frequent risky practices reported were unprotected vaginal sex among MSW and unprotected receptive anal sex among MSM. Factors increasing the chance of unprotected sexual practices among MSW were the partner's desire of becoming pregnant (OR 2.81; CI 95 %: 1.36-5.95). To have received comments about excessive consumption of alcohol (OR 2.43; CI 95 %: 1.01-5.83), illicit drug use (OR 4.41; CI 95 %: 1.75-11.60) and lived in marital situation (OR 2.10; CI 95 %: 1.09-4.08) were significantly associated with unsafe sexual practices among MSM. The results highlight that health care of men living with HIV, as well as the prevention strategies, must consider the particularities of sexual behavior practiced by people who differ in sexual orientation.Archives of Sexual Behavior 10/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10508-014-0357-4 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to reduce sexual risks among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HMSM) in the US. We conducted a randomized trial of Healthy Choices, a 4-session MI intervention, targeting sexual risks among 110 HIV-positive youth ages 16-25 years in Thailand. Risk assessments were conducted at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months post-intervention. This report presents the analysis of 74 HMSM in the study. There were 37 HMSM in the Intervention group and 37 in the control group. The proportions of participants having anal sex and having sex with either HIV-uninfected or unknown partners in past 30 days were significantly lower in Intervention group than in Control group at 6 months post-intervention (38 vs. 65 %, p = .04; and 27 vs. 62 %, p < .01, respectively). There were no significant differences in general mental health scores and HIV stigma scores between the two groups at any study visit. Thirty-five (95 %) HMSM in the Intervention group vs. 31 (84 %) in control group attended ≥ 3 sessions. Loss to follow-up was 8 and 30 %, respectively (p = .04). Healthy Choices for young Thai HMSM was associated with sexual risk reduction. Improvements in mental health were noted in Intervention group. Healthy Choices is a promising behavioral intervention and should be further developed to serve the needs of young HMSM in resource-limited countries.Archives of Sexual Behavior 03/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10508-014-0274-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor