Chin-Hong PV, Deeks SG, Liegler T, Hagos E, Krone MR, Grant RM, Martin JN. High-risk sexual behavior in adults with genotypically proven antiretroviral-resistant HIV infection
ABSTRACT The substantial frequency of drug resistance in persons recently infected with HIV implies exposure among HIV-uninfected individuals to HIV-infected persons with drug-resistant virus. Although there is an increasing emphasis on understanding high-risk behavior among HIV-infected patients, little work has focused on those with drug-resistant virus.
We examined antiretroviral-treated patients with drug resistance in the Study of the Consequences of the Protease Inhibitor Era, a clinic-based cohort of HIV-infected adults. Sexual behavior was ascertained by self-administered questionnaire. Genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing was performed on isolates from participants with a plasma HIV RNA level > or =100 copies/mL.
Among 279 participants on antiretroviral therapy, 168 (60%) had genotypic resistance to at least 1 drug. In those with drug resistance, 27% of men who have sex with men (MSM) and 11% of heterosexual men and women reported at least 1 episode of unprotected penile-anal or penile-vaginal intercourse in the previous 4 months; 17% of MSM and 6% of heterosexual participants reported unprotected intercourse with an HIV-uninfected or status unknown partner. In a multivariable model of predictors of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with an HIV-uninfected or status unknown partner, there was strong evidence for an effect of younger age, depression, and sildenafil use and moderate evidence for frequent alcohol use.
Among HIV-infected patients with drug-resistant viremia, there is a substantial prevalence of high-risk sex with HIV-uninfected partners. The presence of definable risk factors for unsafe sex suggests a role for targeted rather than broad intervention, particularly when resources are limited.
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- "In addition, our study results may only be characteristic of the geographic region urban northeastern United States studied or the period when assessments were collected. They are, however, quite consistent with the small but growing data from other regions and populations,[9,18,22,24] where men who have sex with men were well represented. Moreover, these data are of pressing clinical and public health importance, and warrant similar and additional investigation in different populations and geographic areas. "
ABSTRACT: Population-based and longitudinal information regarding sexual risk behavior among patients with multidrug resistant (MDR) HIV and their sexual partners is of great public health and clinical importance. To characterize the HIV sexual risk behaviors of patients with and without drug-resistant HIV in the clinical care setting over time. 393 HIV-positive patients completed questionnaires of self-reported sexual risk behaviors at approximate 6-month intervals extending over 24 months. HIV viral load and genotypic drug resistance obtained during the same time points were matched to the behavioral data. Multidrug resistance was defined as having resistance to 2 or 3 antiretroviral (ARV) drug classes. In serial cross-sectional analyses, 393 patients (44% female and 79% heterosexual) contributed 919 matched behavioral and virologic results over the 24 months of data collection. Of these, 250 patients (64%) reported having sex during at least 1 survey period resulting in greater than 10,000 sexual events with more than 1000 partners. Unprotected sexual behavior was reported by 45% of sexually active patients, resulting in 34% of all sex events that exposed 29% of all partners. Of these patients with unprotected sexual events, 31% had HIV drug resistance--11.6% with resistance to 2 classes of ARVs (2-class), and 1.8% with 3-class ARV resistance at the time of a sexual risk event. Close to 1000 or 28% of all unprotected sexual events involved resistant strains (11% of these with resistance to 2 classes and 0.2% with 3-class resistance, exposing 20% of unprotected sexual partners to resistant HIV (8% to 2-class and 0.6% to 3-class resistance). In longitudinal analysis among the 78 patients who reported a cumulative total of 12 months of sexual history and had resistance testing, 38% reported engaging in unprotected sexual behavior. There was substantial and complex variation in the distribution of unprotected sexual events and in the detection of resistance over time. In this study of HIV sexual risk and resistance over time among HIV-infected patients in clinical care, a substantial proportion engaged in unprotected sex and had drug-resistant HIV, frequently exposing partners to 1- or 2-class resistant HIV strains. However, relatively few exposures involved 3-class resistance. The dynamics of sexual risk behavior and HIV drug resistance are complex and vary over time and urgently require both general and targeted interventions to reduce transmission of resistant HIV.MedGenMed: Medscape general medicine 02/2006; 8(2):72. DOI:10.1186/1758-2652-8-2-72
Article: Living with HIV in the 21st Century
- BMJ (online) 04/2006; 332(7541):605-7. DOI:10.1136/bmj.332.7541.605 · 17.45 Impact Factor