A CCR5-tropic simian-HIV molecular clone capable of inducing AIDS in rhesus macaques
ABSTRACT We previously reported the derivation of a CCR5 (R5)-tropic pathogenic strain SHIVSF162P3. Here, we show that a simian-HIV (SHIV) molecular clone expressing the entire env gp160 of SHIVSF162P3, termed SHIV P3gp160, could fully recapitulate the in vivo replicative characteristics of the parental isolate. SHIV P3gp160 is mucosally transmissible, preferentially depletes memory CD4 T cells, and induced simian AIDS in 2 of 6 infected macaques. The availability of an infectious R5 SHIV molecular clone that can be transmitted mucosally and causes disease provides an important reagent for studies of lentiviral pathogenesis and AIDS vaccine research.
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- "Sequence analysis of SIV RT (551 bp; amino acids 52–234) was done using an RT-nested PCR method previously described (Subbarao et al., 2006). Env sequences (1570 bp; nucleotides 230–2030 of HIV −1 env) were also generated by RT-nested PCR as described (Hsu et al., 2005). PCR products were sequenced using an ABI 3130 × Genetic Analyzer. "
ABSTRACT: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV has been widely documented. We generated tenofovir (TFV)- and emtricitabine (FTC)-resistant SHIV162P3 mutants that can be used to investigate the transmission efficiency of drug-resistant viruses and their impact on the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Both SHIV162p3(M184V) and SHIV162p3(K65R) replicated in vitro at high titers. Drug resistance profiles were similar to those seen in HIV. Virus infectivity to virion particle ratios were 4- and 10-fold lower in SHIV162p3(M184V) and SHIV162p3(K65R), compared to a concurrently generated WT SHIV162p3, respectively. Mucosal transmissibility studies using a repeat low-dose macaque model of rectal and vaginal transmission showed that both mutants were able to efficiently infect macaques only after the dose was increased to adjust for fitness reductions due to K65R and M184V. Our results in limited number of macaques suggest that the reduction in fitness due to M184V and K65R decreases virus transmissibility, and identify in vitro infectivity parameters that associate with mucosal transmissibility.Virology 02/2011; 412(2):435-40. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2011.01.038 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C causes >50% of all HIV infections worldwide, and an estimated 90% of all transmissions occur mucosally with R5 strains. A pathogenic R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) encoding HIV clade C env is highly desirable to evaluate candidate AIDS vaccines in nonhuman primates. To this end, we generated SHIV-1157i, a molecular clone from a Zambian infant isolate that carries HIV clade C env. SHIV-1157i was adapted by serial passage in five monkeys, three of which developed peripheral CD4(+) T-cell depletion. After the first inoculated monkey developed AIDS at week 137 postinoculation, transfer of its infected blood to a naïve animal induced memory T-cell depletion and thrombocytopenia within 3 months in the recipient. In parallel, genomic DNA from the blood donor was amplified to generate the late proviral clone SHIV-1157ipd3. To increase the replicative capacity of SHIV-1157ipd3, an extra NF-kappaB binding site was engineered into its 3' long terminal repeat, giving rise to SHIV-1157ipd3N4. This virus was exclusively R5 tropic and replicated more potently in rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells than SHIV-1157ipd3 in the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Rhesus macaques of Indian and Chinese origin were next inoculated intrarectally with SHIV-1157ipd3N4; this virus replicated vigorously in both sets of monkeys. We conclude that SHIV-1157ipd3N4 is a highly replication-competent, mucosally transmissible R5 SHIV that represents a valuable tool to test candidate AIDS vaccines targeting HIV-1 clade C Env.Journal of Virology 09/2006; 80(17):8729-38. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00558-06 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As the diversity of potential immunogens increases within certain classes of vectors, the possibility has arisen of employing heterologous prime/boost immunizations using diverse members of the same family of vectors. The present study was initiated to explore the use of divergent pox vectors in a prime/boost regimen to elicit high-frequency cellular immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope and simian immunodeficiency virus gag in rhesus monkeys. We demonstrated that monkeys vaccinated with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) prime/recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) boost regimen and monkeys vaccinated with a recombinant vaccinia virus prime/rFPV boost regimen developed comparable cellular immune responses that were greater in magnitude than those elicited by a homologous prime/boost with rMVA. Nevertheless, comparable magnitude recall cellular immune responses were observed in monkeys vaccinated with heterologous and homologous recombinant poxvirus following challenge with the CXCR4-tropic SHIV-89.6P. Consistent with this finding, comparable levels of containment of viral replication and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte preservation were seen in these groups of recombinant poxvirus-vaccinated monkeys. This study supports further exploration of combining recombinant vectors of the same family in prime/boost immunization strategies to optimize vaccine-elicited cellular immune responses.Journal of Virology 09/2007; 81(16):8563-70. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00744-07 · 4.65 Impact Factor