The role of Snapin in neurosecretion: snapin knock-out mice exhibit impaired calcium-dependent exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles in chromaffin cells.

Synaptic Function Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3701, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 12/2005; 25(45):10546-55. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3275-05.2005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Identification of the molecules that regulate the priming of synaptic vesicles for fusion and the structural coupling of the calcium sensor with the soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE)-based fusion machinery is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying calcium-dependent neurosecretion. Snapin binds to synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and enhances the association of the SNARE complex with synaptotagmin. In the present study, we abolished snapin expression in mice and functionally evaluated the role of Snapin in neuroexocytosis. We found that the association of synaptotagmin-1 with SNAP-25 in brain homogenates of snapin mutant mice is impaired. Consequently, the absence of Snapin in embryonic chromaffin cells leads to a significant reduction of calcium-dependent exocytosis resulting from a decreased number of vesicles in releasable pools. Overexpression of Snapin fully rescued this inhibitory effect in the mutant cells. Furthermore, Snapin is relatively enriched in the purified large dense-core vesicles of chromaffin cells and associated with synaptotagmin-1. Thus, our biochemical and electrophysiological studies using snapin knock-out mice demonstrate that Snapin plays a critical role in modulating neurosecretion by stabilizing the release-ready vesicles.

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    ABSTRACT: Protein Interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1) is a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain protein involved in AMPA receptor trafficking. Here, we identify a selective role for PICK1 in the biogenesis of large, dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in mouse chromaffin cells. PICK1 colocalized with syntaxin-6, a marker for immature granules. In chromaffin cells isolated from a PICK1 knockout (KO) mouse the amount of exocytosis was reduced, while release kinetics and Ca(2+) sensitivity were unaffected. Vesicle-fusion events had a reduced frequency and released lower amounts of transmitter per vesicle (i.e., reduced quantal size). This was paralleled by a reduction in the mean single-vesicle capacitance, estimated by averaging time-locked capacitance traces. EM confirmed that LDCVs were fewer and of markedly reduced size in the PICK1 KO, demonstrating that all phenotypes can be explained by reductions in vesicle number and size, whereas the fusion competence of generated vesicles was unaffected by the absence of PICK1. Viral rescue experiments demonstrated that long-term re-expression of PICK1 is necessary to restore normal vesicular content and secretion, while short-term overexpression is ineffective, consistent with an upstream role for PICK1. Disrupting lipid binding of the BAR domain (2K-E mutation) or of the PDZ domain (CC-GG mutation) was sufficient to reproduce the secretion phenotype of the null mutant. The same mutations are known to eliminate PICK1 function in receptor trafficking, indicating that the multiple functions of PICK1 involve a conserved mechanism. Summarized, our findings demonstrate that PICK1 functions in vesicle biogenesis and is necessary to maintain normal vesicle numbers and size.
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    ABSTRACT: Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) is a component of the molecular machinery required for the biogenesis of specialized organelles and lysosomal targeting of cargoes via the endosomal to lysosomal trafficking pathway. BLOS1, one subunit of BLOC-1, is implicated in lysosomal trafficking of membrane proteins. We found that the degradation and trafficking of EGFR were delayed in BLOS1 knockdown cells, which were rescued through BLOS1 overexpression. A key feature to the delayed EGFR degradation is the accumulation of endolysosomes in BLOS1 knockdown cells or BLOS1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. BLOS1 interacted with SNX2 (a retromer subunit) and TSG101 (an ESCRT-I subunit) to mediate EGFR lysosomal trafficking. These results suggest that coordination of the endo-lysosomal trafficking proteins is important for proper targeting of EGFR to lysosomes.
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