Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha in the transcriptional regulation of the human uncoupling protein 2 gene in INS-1E cells.
ABSTRACT A role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) as negative modulator of insulin secretion has been suggested, but the transcriptional pathways regulating beta-cell UCP2 gene expression have been established in rodents only. We show here that the underlying sequence motifs are not conserved in the human gene and provide evidence for regulatory mechanisms involving the transcriptional cofactor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1alpha). PGC-1alpha potentiates thyroid hormone (T(3))-mediated transcriptional activation of the human UCP2 gene in INS-1E cells. Two thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) located at -322/-317 (TRE1) and -170/-165 (TRE2) were identified, and mutation of either TRE1 or TRE2 abrogated the stimulatory effect of T(3) treatment. Furthermore, two E-box motifs at -911/-906 (E1) and -743/-738 (E2) are involved in the regulation of UCP2 gene expression by sterol regulatory element binding protein isoforms (SREBP)-1a, -1c, and -2. Mutational analysis revealed that the presence of either E1 or E2 is sufficient to mediate activation of UCP2 gene transcription by nuclear active SREBPs. PGC-1alpha coactivates liver X receptor-mediated expression of SREBP-1c as well as dexamethasone-stimulated SREBP-2 expression in INS-1E cells. These transcriptional responses are antagonized by orphan nuclear receptor short heterodimer partner overexpression, which might explain its positive effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta-cells overexpressing UCP2. We also provide evidence that despite a lack of sequence homology within the regulatory region, the principal mechanisms regulating UCP2 gene expression are similar in rats and humans, being consistent with a role for UCP2 as a modulator of insulin secretion in humans.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The amplified in breast cancer-3 protein (AIB3) is a nuclear coactivator involved in proliferation, apoptosis and development. AIB3 loss of function causes deficient insulin secretion in mice, indicating that AIB3 participates in beta-cell regulation. Our objective was to evaluate genetic variants located on AIB3 associated with beta-cell function in children and to analyse the effect of AIB3 overexpression on gene expression in insulin 1 (INS-1) beta-pancreatic cells. Polymorphisms from AIB3 were genotyped in 148 children with normal or low birthweights for gestational age. The effect of AIB3 overexpression on gene expression was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in INS-1 cells. AIB3 variants were associated with homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-beta-cell) in children with normal or low birthweights for gestational age, but not with HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or with birthweight. AIB3 overexpression increased the expression of genes involved in signalling, such as IRS-1, IRS-2, IGF-II receptor or Foxo1, or of genes that control insulin secretion, such as Cplx2, Glut2 or Kv3.1 in INS-1 cells. Our results suggest that AIB3 contributes to the maintenance of beta-cell function in nondiabetic children and regulates gene expression in INS-1 cells.Clinical Endocrinology 05/2008; 69(5):730-6. · 3.40 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the recent past, we have observed a possible role of 10398A and 16189C mtDNA and PGC1alpha p.Thr394Thr (rs2970847) and p.Gly482Ser (rs8192673) variant genotypes providing susceptibility/protection against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in two North Indian population groups. These initial observations encouraged us to look at the candidate genes in combination with -866G/A (rs659366) polymorphism in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in a single study of a relatively large sample size, constituted of both the cohorts, to unravel an interesting outcome of an additive interaction in-between the studied genes. In a total of 1,686 individuals (762 cases and 924 controls) belonging to Indo-European linguistic group from North India, a comparison of risk genotype combinations of: UCP2-866GG, mtDNA 10398A and PGC1alpha p.Thr394Thr or p.Gly482Ser against the protective genotypes: UCP2-866XA, mtDNA 10398G and PGC1alpha p.Thr394Thr (nominal P value = 1.75 x 10(-14), Odds ratio, OR = 5.29, 3.40-8.22 at 95% CI) or PGC1alpha p.Gly482Ser (nominal p value = 4.42 x 10(-24), OR = 8.59, 5.53-13.35 at 95% CI), showed a highly significant difference and increased ORs. In a complex disease, it is always encouraging to find an additive interaction of multiple small effects of the studied candidate gene variations.Human Genetics 01/2008; 122(5):535-40. · 4.63 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins in promoting the malignant transformation of mammalian cells by affecting properties such as proliferative signalling, cell cycle regulation and altered adhesion is well established. Chemicals, viruses and radiation are also generally accepted as agents that commonly induce mutations in the genes encoding these cancer-causing proteins, thereby giving rise to cancer. However, more recent evidence indicates the importance of two additional key factors imposed on proliferating cells that are involved in transformation to malignancy and these are hypoxia and/or stressful conditions of nutrient deprivation (e.g. lack of glucose). These two additional triggers can initiate and promote the process of malignant transformation when a low percentage of cells overcome and escape cellular senescence. It is becoming apparent that hypoxia causes the progressive elevation in mitochondrial ROS production (chronic ROS) which over time leads to stabilization of cells via increased HIF-2alpha expression, enabling cells to survive with sustained levels of elevated ROS. In cells under hypoxia and/or low glucose, DNA mismatch repair processes are repressed by HIF-2alpha and they continually accumulate mitochondrial ROS-induced oxidative DNA damage and increasing numbers of mutations driving the malignant transformation process. Recent evidence also indicates that the resulting mutated cancer-causing proteins feedback to amplify the process by directly affecting mitochondrial function in combinatorial ways that intersect to play a major role in promoting a vicious spiral of malignant cell transformation. Consequently, many malignant processes involve periods of increased mitochondrial ROS production when a few cells survive the more common process of oxidative damage induced cell senescence and death. The few cells escaping elimination emerge with oncogenic mutations and survive to become immortalized tumors. This review focuses on evidence highlighting the role of mitochondria as drivers of elevated ROS production during malignant transformation and hence, their potential as targets for cancer therapy. The review is organized into five main sections concerning different aspects of "mitochondrial malignancy". The first concerns the functions of mitochondrial ROS and its importance as a pacesetter for cell growth versus senescence and death. The second considers the available evidence that cellular stress in the form of hypoxic and/or hypoglycaemic conditions represent two of the major triggering events for cancer and how oncoproteins reinforce this process by altering gene expression to bring about a common set of changes in mitochondrial function and activity in cancer cells. The third section presents evidence that oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins physically localize to the mitochondria in cancer cells where they directly regulate malignant mitochondrial programs, including apoptosis. The fourth section covers common mutational changes in the mitochondrial genome as they relate to malignancy and the relationship to the other three areas. The last section concerns the relevance of these findings, their importance and significance for novel targeted approaches to anti-cancer therapy and selective triggering in cancer cells of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.Molecular Aspects of Medicine 03/2010; 31(2):145-70. · 10.38 Impact Factor