Rotator cuff tears: Clinical, radiographic, and US findings

Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, Great Neck, NY 11021, USA.
Radiographics (Impact Factor: 2.73). 11/2005; 25(6):1591-607. DOI: 10.1148/rg.256045203
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain. Clinical and radiographic findings can suggest the presence of a rotator cuff tear. The most sensitive clinical findings are impingement and the "arc of pain" sign. Radiographic findings are usually normal in the acute setting, although the "active abduction" view may show decreased acromiohumeral distance. In more chronic cases, an outlet view may show decreased opacity and decreased size of the supraspinatus muscle due to atrophy. In late cases, the humeral head may become subluxated superiorly, and secondary degenerative arthritis of the glenohumeral joint may ensue. Ultrasonography (US), with over 90% sensitivity and specificity, can help confirm the diagnosis in clinically or radiographically equivocal cases. US can also reveal the presence of other abnormalities that may mimic rotator cuff tear at clinical examination, including tendinosis, calcific tendinitis, subacromial subdeltoid bursitis, greater tuberosity fracture, and adhesive capsulitis.

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    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1966; 01/1967
  • Chapter: Shoulder
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    ABSTRACT: The shoulder is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders related to increasing aging and sporting activities. Many papers dealing with the US scanning technique of the rotator cuff tendons have already been published in the radiological, rheumatologic and orthopaedic literature and US is now widely recognized as an accurate means to evaluate rotator cuff disease (Ptasznik 2001; Bouffard et al. 2000; Brasseur et al. 2000; Thain and Adler 1999; Bretzke et al. 1985; Collins et al. 1987; Crass et al. 1985; Hall 1986; Middleton et al. 1984; Middleton et al. 1986b; Mack et al. 1988a; Middleton 1989; Seibold et al. 1999; Teefey et al. 2000; Naredo et al. 2002). With appropriate equipment and skilled hands, this technique provides assessment of rotator cuff pathology with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of both partial and fullthickness tears with some specific advantages over MR imaging, such as higher resolution capabilities and the ability to examine tissues in both static and dynamic states and with the patient in different positions.
    Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System, 12/2006: pages 189-331;
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    ABSTRACT: The quantitative assessment of muscle atrophy has a degree of importance in prognosticating rotator cuff treatment. However, it has been conjectured that muscle fat increases with aging. Therefore, we thought that the quantitative assessment of the supraspinatous would be better if made in comparison with a standard of reference such as the deltoid. Consequently, we performed a two-part study, first evaluating supraspinatous changes compared with the deltoid in "normals" with aging, and second, determining if in patients with cuff tears the supraspinatous fat exceeds that of the deltoid. In part 1, we studied 50 patients stratified by decade. In the first sitting, two blinded independent observers quantitatively graded the deltoid (with the supraspinatous obscured) and in the second sitting the same two observers quantitatively graded the supraspinatous (with the deltoid obscured). In part 2 of the study, we evaluated patients with moderate rotator cuff tears (>2 cm) and performed the same blinded, two-sitting, quantitative assessment (with the comparison muscle obscured). We found that muscle atrophy increases with age in patients without tears (0.011/0.028 U/year), although to a greater degree in the deltoid (p = 0.032). Also, in similarly aged patients, quantitative scores of the deltoid closely matched those of the supraspinatous (p = 0.071). Notably, however, in patients with large tears, the supraspinatous showed significant changes disproportionate to those of the deltoid, regardless of patient age (p = 0.044). In the presence of a normal rotator cuff, fatty infiltration increases with age. Age-related changes occur more frequently in the deltoid, verifying this muscle's potential as a standard of reference. With cuff tears, supraspinatous atrophy was disproportionate to that of the deltoid. Therefore, systematic assessment of supraspinatous muscle atrophy may be more reliable using the deltoid as a control for comparison than assessing it in isolation.
    Skeletal Radiology 09/2007; 36(9):841-5. DOI:10.1007/s00256-007-0307-5 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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