We performed a comprehensive literature and case report review to characterize the cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) associated with Fryns syndrome (OMIM #229850), a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome consisting of diaphragmatic defects, significant pulmonary hypoplasia, distinctive facial appearance, distal digital hypoplasia, and numerous other external and internal anomalies. A total of 112 patients meeting diagnostic guidelines for Fryns syndrome were identified, of whom 82 met narrowly defined criteria (Group I) and 30 met broader diagnostic criteria (Group II). Twelve patients reported as having Fryns syndrome with atypical features (Group III) were also analyzed. A CVM was reported in 51% (42 of 82) of Group I patients, most commonly an atrial or ventricular septal defect (VSD) (23 of 42, 55%). Conotruncal and aortic arch CVMs were common (11 of 42, 26%), but not significantly so compared to the general population of infants to age 1 year [Ferencz et al., 1997]. Recognizing that minor septal defects associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may occur in response to altered hemodynamics (instead of being a bonafide CVM), we excluded four patients reported as having hemodynamically insignificant VSDs. Following these exclusions, conotruncal CVMs were found more commonly than in the general population (11 of 38, 29%, P < or = 0.025). In Group II, 9 of 30 (30%) had a CVM with no predominant type among the small number of cases reviewed. Among the atypical Fryns syndrome patients in Group III, half (6 of 12, 50%) had a CVM; most (4 of 6, 67%) were conotruncal, in particular, type B interrupted aortic arch (3 of 4). Patients with Fryns syndrome have a high rate of CVMs, warranting thorough cardiac evaluation including echocardiogram (fetal and/or postnatal) in all patients, similar to the evaluation for other patients with diaphragmatic hernia. The possible association between conotruncal CVMs and Fryns syndrome may provide additional support for an etiologic role of genes related to neural crest cell development in the pathogenesis of Fryns syndrome and hence, congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and often devastating birth defect that can occur in isolation or as part of a malformation complex. Considerable progress is being made in the identification of genetic causes of CDH. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of approximately 1Mb resolution to 29 CDH patients with prior normal karyotypes who had been recruited into our multi-site study. One patient, clinically diagnosed with Fryns syndrome, demonstrated a de novo 5Mb deletion at chromosome region 1q41-q42.12 that was confirmed by FISH. Given prior reports of CDH in association with cytogenetic abnormalities in this region, we propose that this represents a locus for Fryns syndrome, a Fryns syndrome phenocopy, or CDH.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 01/2006; 140(1):17-23. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.31025 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The co-occurrence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) has important clinical, genetic, and developmental implications. Previous examinations of this topic often included patients with genetic syndromes. To correct this potential bias, we undertook an extensive review of the literature and obtained new data. The frequency of CVMs associated with isolated CDH was 11-15%. A careful analysis of CVMs indicates that atrial and ventricular septal defects, conotruncal defects, and left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects were the most common type of CVMs, but proportional to the frequency of occurrence in the general population. The combination of CVM and CDH results in a poorer prognosis than would be expected with either malformation alone. However, the impact on survival from patients with a genetic syndrome has not been consistently evaluated. We encourage researchers to re-analyze existing series and recommend that future studies distinguish isolated CDH from that which is associated with other malformations, especially as part of genetic syndromes. Therapies should be tailored to maximize cardiac output and systemic oxygen delivery rather than systemic oxygen saturation alone. Although there is speculation about the frequency with which isolated left ventricular "hypoplasia" occurs in patients with CDH, we suggest it results from compression of a pre-load deficient left ventricle by the hypertensive right ventricle, and unlike true hypoplasia, is reversible. Irrespective of the type of severity of CVMs in patients with CDH, the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary vascular disease predicts outcome.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Seminars in Medical Genetics 05/2007; 145C(2):201-16. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.30131 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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