Tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer: Current status of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 study

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment (Impact Factor: 15.16). 12/2005; 97(22):1652-62. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/dji372
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Initial findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (P-1) demonstrated that tamoxifen reduced the risk of estrogen receptor-positive tumors and osteoporotic fractures in women at increased risk for breast cancer. Side effects of varying clinical significance were observed. The trial was unblinded because of the positive results, and follow-up continued. This report updates our initial findings.
Women (n = 13,388) were randomly assigned to receive placebo or tamoxifen for 5 years. Rates of breast cancer and other events were compared by the use of risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Estimates of the net benefit from 5 years of tamoxifen therapy were compared by age, race, and categories of predicted breast cancer risk. Statistical tests were two-sided.
After 7 years of follow-up, the cumulative rate of invasive breast cancer was reduced from 42.5 per 1000 women in the placebo group to 24.8 per 1000 women in the tamoxifen group (RR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.70) and the cumulative rate of noninvasive breast cancer was reduced from 15.8 per 1000 women in the placebo group to 10.2 per 1000 women in the tamoxifen group (RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.89). These reductions were similar to those seen in the initial report. Tamoxifen led to a 32% reduction in osteoporotic fractures (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.92). Relative risks of stroke, deep-vein thrombosis, and cataracts (which increased with tamoxifen) and of ischemic heart disease and death (which were not changed with tamoxifen) were also similar to those initially reported. Risks of pulmonary embolism were approximately 11% lower than in the original report, and risks of endometrial cancer were about 29% higher, but these differences were not statistically significant. The net benefit achieved with tamoxifen varied according to age, race, and level of breast cancer risk.
Despite the potential bias caused by the unblinding of the P-1 trial, the magnitudes of all beneficial and undesirable treatment effects of tamoxifen were similar to those initially reported, with notable reductions in breast cancer and increased risks of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer. Readily identifiable subsets of individuals comprising 2.5 million women could derive a net benefit from the drug.


Available from: Walter M Cronin, Jan 28, 2015
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    DESCRIPTION: Possible synergistic effect of tamoxifen (2 μM) and hydrazinyldiene-chroman-2,4-diones (10-100 μM) was examined with an aim to create more effective treatment for ER+ breast cancer. Anti-breast cancer effect has been evaluated on the proliferation of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells using MTT and alamarBlue assays. Cell viability was evaluated after 48h-treatment and the ICs50 of the coumarin derivatives were determined. The apoptotic effect was evaluated by detection of PARP cleavage and reduced activity of the survival kinase Akt. The results demonstrated dose-dependent activity, with a percent of growth inhibition after combination treatment being significantly higher (53% to 79%, 10 μM and 100 μM, respectively) than the one in the cell lines treated with tamoxifen (29% to 37%) and the synthesized coumarin derivatives alone (11% to 68%, 10 μM and 100 μM, respectively). The ICs50 of the synthesized compounds significantly decreased in synergy with tamoxifen (33% to 51%). Coumarin derivative having thiazole moiety with additional methyl groups attached to the carbons at positions 5 and 4 in the thiazole ring showed to be the most potent, with IC50 20 μM when administered alone and 10 μM in synergy with tamoxifen. The levels of phospho-Thr308 Akt were down-regulated by the combination treatment, pointing to tyrosine kinase phosphorylation inhibition. In conclusion, the novel coumarin derivatives enhance the activity of tamoxifen and this combination may be suitable for prevention of ER+ breast cancer or development of related compounds. Further studies are needed to elucidate precisely the type of receptor involved in the activity and the mechanism of action.
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Western Europe and North America. Effective strategies of medical prevention could reduce the burden of breast cancer mortality. The best evidence for a risk reduction exists for hormonal agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifene (22-72%) or aromatase inhibitors (50-65%). However, the severity of side effects and the lack of evidence for an improved survival compromise the risk/benefit balance. In this review the results of chemoprevention studies, including new treatment approaches, are summarized with critical discussion of their use in clinical practice.
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