Systemic cytokine levels and the effects of etanercept in TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) involving a C33Y mutation in TNFRSF1A

Division of Immunology, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.
Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 4.48). 02/2006; 45(1):31-7. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kei090
Source: PubMed


To investigate the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70 in the plasma of patients with TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in relation to CRP levels and treatment with etanercept.
Cytokine concentrations were measured in sequential plasma samples obtained from eight patients with a C33Y mutation in TNFRSF1A and diagnosed with TRAPS, using cytokine bead array. The TRAPS samples were compared with samples from normal controls and rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in C33Y TRAPS patients and these correlated with CRP levels in some of the patients. IL-8 levels were also significantly elevated in the TRAPS patients. However, neither TNF-alpha nor IL-1beta demonstrated a similar increase. This differed from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, for whom levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-10 were significantly elevated. The levels of detectable TNF-alpha in the TRAPS patients' plasma were elevated during etanercept treatment.
The cytokine profile of C33Y TRAPS differs from that of a typical autoimmune inflammatory condition such as rheumatoid arthritis, as only IL-6 and IL-8 were elevated in C33Y TRAPS patients, as distinct from a generalized elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, only some of the C33Y patients tested showed a relationship between elevated IL-6 and CRP. This is consistent with clinical observations that there is marked heterogeneity between individuals with TRAPS, including those in the same family cohort. Although etanercept has a therapeutic effect in some TRAPS patients, it induces increased plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, possibly by increasing TNF-alpha stability.

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Available from: Patrick Tighe, Jun 13, 2014
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    • "Serum TNF-α level in patients with various inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis or TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome was known to be increased after treatment with soluble receptor [26] or anti-TNF antibody [27] irrespective of efficacy. The cause of elevation can be attributed to increased half-life of TNF-α [28] or upregulated expression of TNF-α [29]. Presence of anti-CXCL10 could also interfere with the CXCL10 assay [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) is a chemokine that plays a critical role in the infiltration of T cells in autoimmune diseases and is reported to be expressed in muscle tissue of polymyositis. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of CXCL10 blockade, we investigated the role of CXCL10 and the effect of anti-CXCL10 antibody treatment in C protein-induced myositis (CIM), an animal model of polymyositis. Methods CIM was induced with human skeletal muscle C protein fragment in female C57BL/6 mice. Immunohistochemistry of CXCL10 and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and measurement of serum CXCL10 were performed. Cell surface markers and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in CIM lymph node cells was investigated by flow cytometry. Mice with CIM were treated with anti-CXCL10 antibody or control antibody (anti-RVG1) and the inflammation in muscle tissue was assessed. Results Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of CXCL10 and CXCR3 in the inflammatory lesions of muscle in CIM. Especially, CD8+ T cells invading myofiber expressed CXCR3. Serum level of CXCL10 was increased in CIM compared to the level in normal mice (normal mouse, 14.3 ± 5.3 pg/ml vs. CIM, 368.5 ± 135.6 pg/ml, P < 0.001). CXCR3 positivity in CD8+ T cells was increased compared to that of CD4+ T cells in the lymph node cells of CIM (CXCR3+ among CD8+ T cell, 65.9 ± 2.1% vs. CXCR3+ among CD4+ T cell, 23.5 ± 4.7%, P <0.001). Moreover, IFN-γ+ cells were increased among CXCR3+CD8+ T cells compared to CXCR3–CD8+ T cells (CXCR3+CD8+ T cell, 28.0 ± 4.2% vs. CXCR3-CD8+ T cell, 9.5 ± 1.5%, P = 0.016). Migration of lymph node cells was increased in response to CXCL10 (chemotactic index was 1.91 ± 0.45). CIM mice treated with anti-CXCL10 antibody showed a lower inflammation score in muscles than those with anti-RVG1 (median, anti-CXCL10 treatment group, 0.625 vs. anti-RVG1 treatment group, 1.25, P = 0.007). Conclusions CXCL10/CXCR3 expression was increased in the inflammation of CIM model and its blockade suppressed inflammation in muscle.
    Arthritis Research & Therapy 06/2014; 16(3):R126. DOI:10.1186/ar4583 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, differences in cytokine levels upon stimulation of PBMCs with phytohemagglutinin or Ascaris were small but the impact on antibody production was remarkable [38]. Differences in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines between healthy individuals and patients with autoimmune conditions have been also described in this range [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between BAFF and specific antibodies against Ascaris and mites in 448 controls and 448 asthmatics. Soluble BAFF was measured by ELISA and BAFF mRNA by qPCR. Surface expression of BAFF and its receptor (BAFF-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Individuals with specific IgE levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had lower levels of soluble BAFF; those with specific IgG levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had reduced BAFF mRNA. Total IgE and specific IgE to mites were not related to BAFF levels. There were no differences in soluble BAFF or mRNA levels between asthmatics and controls. There was an inverse relationship between the cell-surface expression of BAFF-R on CD19+ B cells and BAFF levels at the transcriptional and protein level. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in BAFF levels are related to the strength of the antibody response to Ascaris.
    BMC Immunology 06/2014; 15(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1471-2172-15-22 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    • "The inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL12p70 and TNFα are implicated both at the pathogenesis and the morbidities of HIV infection. In the present study, cytokines’ levels are higher than healthy population indicating the immune state of these HIV patients [44]. Cytokines’ levels remain stable between and within ART groups during the study period apart from an increase of TNFα levels at the 1st month in Group_A. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Persistent immune activation and inflammation are lying behind HIV-infection even in the setting of ART mediated viral suppression. The purpose of this study is to define the in vivo effect of two first-line ART regimens on certain inflammatory mediators in male HIV patients. Methods Male, naive, HIV-infected volunteers were assigned either to tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine/efavirenz (Group_T) or abacavir/lamivudine/efavirenz (Group_A). Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) levels and metabolic enzymes together with HIV-implicated cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNFa) and VEGF were determined for a 12-month period. Differences within each group were determined by non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon test, while the differences between the groups were checked by ANOVA repeated measures. Results Both ART regimens present pronounced effect on inflammatory mediators, resulting in decreased PAF levels and Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity for tenofovir-containing regimen and same as baseline PAF levels with a peak though at the 3rd month as well as elevated Lp-PLA2 activity for abacavir-containing regimen. Conclusions Studies regarding the effect of first-line ART regimens on inflammation may be beneficial in preventing chronic morbidities during HIV-treatment. From this point of view, the present study suggests an anti-inflammatory effect of tenofovir-containing ART, while the temporary increase of PAF levels in abacavir-containing ART may be the link between the reported cardiovascular risk and abacavir administration.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 05/2014; 13(1):90. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-13-90 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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