Systemic cytokine levels and the effects of etanercept in TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) involving a C33Y mutation in TNFRSF1A
ABSTRACT To investigate the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70 in the plasma of patients with TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in relation to CRP levels and treatment with etanercept.
Cytokine concentrations were measured in sequential plasma samples obtained from eight patients with a C33Y mutation in TNFRSF1A and diagnosed with TRAPS, using cytokine bead array. The TRAPS samples were compared with samples from normal controls and rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in C33Y TRAPS patients and these correlated with CRP levels in some of the patients. IL-8 levels were also significantly elevated in the TRAPS patients. However, neither TNF-alpha nor IL-1beta demonstrated a similar increase. This differed from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, for whom levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-10 were significantly elevated. The levels of detectable TNF-alpha in the TRAPS patients' plasma were elevated during etanercept treatment.
The cytokine profile of C33Y TRAPS differs from that of a typical autoimmune inflammatory condition such as rheumatoid arthritis, as only IL-6 and IL-8 were elevated in C33Y TRAPS patients, as distinct from a generalized elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, only some of the C33Y patients tested showed a relationship between elevated IL-6 and CRP. This is consistent with clinical observations that there is marked heterogeneity between individuals with TRAPS, including those in the same family cohort. Although etanercept has a therapeutic effect in some TRAPS patients, it induces increased plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, possibly by increasing TNF-alpha stability.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Patrick Tighe, Jun 13, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The term 'autoinflammatory disease' was first proposed in 1999 to encompass some of the distinct clinicopathologic features of a group of monogenic conditions, characterised by recurrent episodes of inflammation, without high-titre autoantibodies or antigen-specific T cells. It was subsequently observed that several of these conditions were caused by mutations in proteins involved in the innate immune response, including, among others, components of the NLRP3 inflammasome, cytokine receptors (tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)) and receptor antagonists (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)). More recently, additional mechanisms linking innate immune-mediated inflammation with a variety of cellular processes, including protein misfolding, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, have been recognised to play a role in the pathogenesis of some monogenic autoinflammatory conditions, and also in more common diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), previously perceived as a metabolic disorder, but reclassified as a chronic inflammatory condition. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is induced by islet amyloid polypeptides (IAPPs) in T2D and this condition may, in future, be more commonly treated with targeted anti-cytokine therapies. Caspase 1 activation and release of IL-1β/IL-1 family members is central to the pathogenesis of many autoinflammatory syndromes, as evidenced by the effectiveness of anti-IL-1 biologics in treating these disorders. However, many patients continue to experience symptoms of chronic inflammation, and it will be necessary to translate discoveries on the immunopathology of these conditions into more effective therapies. For example, in tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), the pathogenesis may vary with each mutation and therefore future approaches to treatment of individual patients will require a more tailored approach based on genetic and functional studies.Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology 08/2012; 26(4):505-33. DOI:10.1016/j.berh.2012.07.009 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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