Sero-epidemological survey on canine visceral leishmaniasis and the distribution of sandfly vectors in northwestern Turkey: prevention strategies for childhood visceral leishmaniasis.
ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum, is an endemic disease in Aegean and Mediterranean Regions among humans and dogs. In this study, a sero-epidemiological survey for VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which both are sporadically reported in the region, were carried out in the villages of Eskisehir, Afyon, and Bilecik cities. The study was designed according to the location of the sporadic cases of VL and CL, and blood samples of 111 dogs were randomly collected. Lymph node aspiration samples were taken from dogs that have popliteal lymphadenopathy. Sand flies were also collected using CDC light traps in the several localities. The sera samples were screened using IFAT, ELISA, rk39 ELISA and dip-stick tests for anti-Leishmania antibodies. A total of 15 (13.51 per cent) dogs out of 111 were found to be seropositive by at least one of the tests. The seropositivity ratios among dogs were found to be 27.5 per cent (8/29), 9.09 per cent (4/44) and 7.8 per cent (3/38) in Afyon, Bilecik and Eskisehir cities respectively. Leishmania amastigotes were detected in 4 of the 14 lymph node aspiration samples (eight seronegative, six seropositive), and all of them were seropositive dogs. One year later, two of the dogs were found to be dead and the other two were severely ill. Among the 179 collected Phlebotomus specimens from, Phlebotomus major was found to be abundant (35.7 per cent) and the other species were P. simici (28.5 per cent), P. similis (34.7 per cent) and P. alexandri (1.1 per cent). In the study area, canine VL is more spread than human VL. Because dogs are playing an important role for VL in Mediterranean Basin, and development of appropriate control measures will be necessary for childhood VL.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to assess and model supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) extraction kinetics of pre-pelletized Jalapeño peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Pepper flakes were conditioned to low moisture, ground finely and pelletized at high pressure, and pellets were subsequently ground and size classified. The effects of average sample particle size (Dp=0.28–3.19 mm) and superficial solvent velocity (Us=0.14–2.62 mm s−1) were evaluated at 40°C and 120 or 320 bar. Extraction rate increased as a result of a decrease in Dp. It also increased as a result of an increase in Us at 120 bar, but the effect was almost negligible at 320 bar. Integral extraction yields of capsicum oleoresin and capsaicinoids were ≈0.102 g g−1 and ≈240 mg kg−1, respectively, independent of extraction conditions. External mass transfer coefficients (kf) increased with Us, but this effect was less pronounced than commonly reported in the literature. Values of kf increased as Dp or process pressure decreased, due respectively to increments in specific area and improvements in transport properties. Internal mass transfer coefficients, on the other hand, were 5.3×10−8 m s−1 at 40°C and 120 bar, and 34.7×10−8 m s−1 at 40°C and 320 bar. Solutes were effectively liberated from the original matrix with our multistage pretreatment, so that the fraction of free solute did not depend on Dp (α=0.46). Pseudosolubilities for capsicum oleoresin in ScCO2 (≈2100 mg l−1 at 40°C and 120 bar; ≈13,700 mg l−1 solute/CO2 at 40°C and 320 bar) were of the same order of magnitude as corresponding true solubilities of capsaicin (5600 and 11,800 mg l−1, respectively). Estimated true solubilities of chlorophyll-a in ScCO2 (2 mg l−1 at 40°C and 120 bar; 18 mg l−1 at 40°C and 320 bar), on the other hand, were orders of magnitude smaller, which justifies a much slower extraction rate for green pigments than pungent compounds. Thus, oleoresin obtained after 4 h at 40°C and 120 bar had a very attractive light yellow tinge.Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 01/2003; 25(1):33-44. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, CVL is spatially associated with human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) affecting mostly children younger than 5 years old. In this study, seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs was assessed in highly endemic districts of the governorate of Kairouan where more than 50% of HVL cases in Tunisia were reported. An entomological investigation was also carried out in two endemic districts (Bouhajla and Haffouz) to assess sand fly fauna and infection status of sand flies with Leishmania. A total of 191 serum samples were collected from healthy dogs and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Overall seroprevalence for L. infantum was 26.7% being highest among dogs in the district of Bouhajla (52.7%) and the lowest in the district of Chbika (5.2%). In dogs, seroprevalence did not differ significantly based on gender or age, with dogs younger than 1 year showing a higher seroprevalence compared to older dogs. These findings suggest strong force of infection in naïve animals in holoendemic regions leading to emerging high incidence of HVL. Concomitant to the high CVL prevalence observed in the Bouhajla district, a significantly high cumulative HVL incidence also was observed in this district. Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis were the most abundant sand fly species in Bouhajla and Haffouz districts. The rate of Leishmania-DNA infection in sand flies was 9.4%. This finding points to spatial correlation between the occurrence of disease in humans, a high rate of infection in dogs and a high abundance of P. pernicious and P. longicuspis. Thus, CVL is the main risk factor for transmission to humans and subsequently, it is an important parameter for controlling transmission to humans.Acta Tropica 07/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The taxonomic status and distribution of the morphologically similar members of the Phlebotomus major complex in Turkey are unclear. To examine the utility of traditional morphological characters and molecular markers, sand flies were sampled from 90 localities in eleven different provinces covering a wide geographical range throughout Turkey. The morphometric variability was analyzed using multivariate analyses of twelve characters, while mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) and nuclear Elongation Factor 1α (EF 1-α) genes were used for molecular discrimination. Three distinct monophyletic lineages were identified based on the phylogenetic analysis of the combined data set of mitochondrial and nuclear gene regions, which were also supported by parsimony haplotype network analysis and AMOVA of Cyt b. The first lineage is restricted to south eastern Turkey and represents the species Phlebotomus syriacus, the second is present mostly in the westernmost and the easternmost localities and represents P. neglectus, and the third member of this complex is distributed across the mid-northern and mid-southern regions. None of the studied morphological characters were found to be sufficient to discriminate between these three members of the P. major s.l. complex; however their presence sympatrically in several localities supports their status as species rather than inter-population variability.Acta tropica 05/2013; · 2.79 Impact Factor