Prevalence of oral lesions and periodontal diseases in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, University Clinic Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.
European journal of medical research (Impact Factor: 1.1). 11/2005; 10(10):448-53.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study examining oral manifestations was carried out in HIV-infected patients of a general HIV-specialized unit to provide prevalence data on oral lesions and periodontal diseases. The occurrence of oral lesions was correlated with demographic and clinical characteristics, immunologic and virologic parameters. Among 139 patients 86% presented any oral lesions with a prevalence of 76% of any periodontal diseases. Most periodontal lesions were classified as conventional gingivitis (28%) or periodontitis (30%). Dental plaque formation was associated with a higher prevalence of periodontal diseases (p = 0.01) and periodontal inflammation scores were higher in patients with more reduced CD4-counts (p = 0.03). Prevalence for HIV-specific oral lesions was 29% with a proportion of 9% of linear gingival erythema (LGE), 3.6% of necrotizing and ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) or periodontitis (NUP), 7% of oral candidiasis, 3.6% of oral hairy leucoplakia (OHL) and single other lesions. HIV-specific lesions (NUG/NUP, oral candidiasis and OHL) were found predominantly in patients with advanced immunosuppression and elevated viral load. Compared with data of oral diseases of the pre-HAART era prevalence of HIV-specific lesions was markedly reduced. Especially frequently known lesions such as oral candidiasis and OHL were less common seen. We noticed a shift of prevalence towards periodontal diseases. Lack of oral hygiene determined by plaque formation and reduced CD4-counts with pronounced periodontal inflammation can be seen as risk factors for periodontal disease. Overall high prevalence of manifestations underlines the importance of oral examination for the general practitioner and visits by oral specialists should become a routine procedure in HIV-patients care.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) are found in HIV+/AIDS patients with immune reconstitution related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). From among 1100 HIV+/AIDS patients (Service of Internal Medicine, Carlos Haya Hospital, Malaga, Spain) subjected to review of the oral cavity between January 1996 and May 2007, we identified those examined in 1996 and which were again examined between 1997 and 2007, and were moreover receiving HAART. The following data were collected: age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4+ lymphocytes/ml, and viral load (from 1997 onwards). We identified those subjects with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes/ml associated to HAART, and classified them as subjects with quantitative evidence of immune reconstitution (QEIR). Among these individuals with QEIR we moreover identified those with undetectable viral loads (QEIR+VL), and differentiated those patients with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes >500/ml (QEIRm+VL). In each group we determined the prevalence of OOI-HIV, following the diagnostic recommendations of the EC-Clearinghouse (CDC-Atlanta, USA - WHO). In addition, we analyzed the prevalence of OOI-HIV in the different groups in relation to the duration of HAART. A total of 86 subjects were included (44 females and 42 males; 19 heterosexuals, 34 male homosexuals, and 33 intravenous drug abusers). Forty-two patients showed QEIR: 21 belonged to the QEIR+VL group, and 17 conformed the QEIRm+VL group. The prevalence of OOI-HIV per group was as follows: QEIR = 54.8%; QEIR+VL = 33%; QEIRm+VL = 35%. The most prevalent lesion in all groups was erythematous candidiasis. OOI-HIV increased with the duration of HAART (p = 0.008), and were seen to be dependent upon late appearance of the mycotic lesions (after 24 months under HAART). It is suggested that opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection form part of the clinical picture of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, though such infections are of late onset.
    Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal 03/2008; 13(2):E85-93. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although oral coinfections (e.g., periodontal disease) are highly prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients and appear to positively correlate with viral load levels, the potential for oral bacteria to induce HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected cells has received little attention. We showed that HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter activation can be induced by periodontopathogens in monocytes/macrophages; nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this response remain undetermined. Since Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and TLR9 activation have been involved in HIV-1 recrudescence, we sought to determine the role of these TLRs in HIV-1 reactivation induced by the periodontal pathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis using BF24 monocytes/macrophages stably transfected with the HIV-1 promoter driving chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression and THP89GFP cells, a model of HIV-1 latency. We demonstrated that TLR9 activation by F. nucleatum and TLR2 activation by both bacteria appear to be involved in HIV-1 reactivation; however, TLR4 activation had no effect. Moreover, the autocrine activity of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) but not interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) produced in response to bacteria could impact viral reactivation. The transcription factors NF-kappaB and Sp1 appear to be positively regulating HIV-1 reactivation induced by these oral pathogens. These results suggest that oral Gram-negative bacteria (F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis) associated with oral and systemic chronic inflammatory disorders enhance HIV-1 reactivation in monocytes/macrophages through TLR2 and TLR9 activation in a mechanism that appears to be transcriptionally regulated. Increased bacterial growth and emergence of these bacteria or their products accompanying chronic oral inflammatory diseases could be risk modifiers for viral replication, systemic immune activation, and AIDS progression in HIV-1(+) patients.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 09/2010; 17(9):1417-27. · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV infection remains a global health problem of unprecedented dimensions, although the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease into a manageable chronic disease with longer survival and improved quality of life in HIV-infected subjects. Among the HIV-associated infections, oral lesions have been recognized as prominent features since the beginning of the epidemic and continue to be important. Periodontal diseases strongly associated with HIV infection are classified as linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and are included among the cardinal oral lesions. Although oral candidiasis appears to be the infection more significantly decreased after the introduction of HAART, the current literature suggests that the prevalence and course of periodontal lesions have also been modified. Higher prevalence of opportunistic microorganisms has been frequently detected in the subgingival flora of HIV-infected individuals, probably due to the immune status of those patients, as colonization and overgrowth of atypical pathogenic species is facilitated by immunosuppression. Additional research is required regarding biological issues such as the role of oral immune factors and periodontal disease in the persistency of HIV infection, the possibility of oral transmission and the re-emerging of HIV infection.
    Oral Diseases 10/2010; 17(1):13-25. · 2.38 Impact Factor


Available from