The synthetic epoxyquinoids jesterone dimer and epoxyquinone A monomer induce apoptosis and inhibit REL (human c-Rel) DNA binding in an IkappaBalpha-deficient diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line.
ABSTRACT The NF-kappaB transcription factor signaling pathway is constitutively active in many human cancers, and inhibition of this pathway can often kill cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. In this study, we show that two synthetic epoxyquinoids, jesterone dimer (JD) and epoxyquinone A monomer (EqM), are equally effective at inhibiting the growth of two human lymphoma cell lines that have constitutively nuclear REL (human c-Rel) DNA-binding complexes, but either express (SUDHL-4 cells) or do not express (RC-K8 cells) the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha. Furthermore, in these cells, both JD and EqM dose-dependently induced apoptosis, inhibited REL DNA-binding activity, and converted REL to a high molecular weight form. In A293 cells, JD and EqM inhibited the DNA-binding activity of overexpressed REL, but not p50. Replacement of Cys-27 with Ser in REL reduced JD- and EqM-mediated inhibition of REL DNA-binding activity. These results suggest that JD and EqM can induce apoptosis in IkappaBalpha-deficient lymphoma cells through a mechanism involving direct inhibition of transcription factor REL.
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ABSTRACT: Transcription factor NF-kappaB is constitutively active in many human chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. Epoxyquinone A monomer (EqM), a synthetic derivative of the natural product epoxyquinol A, has previously been shown to be a potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced activation of NF-kappaB, but the mechanism by which EqM inhibits NF-kappaB activation was not known. In this report, we show that EqM blocks activation of NF-kappaB by inhibiting two molecular targets: IkappaB kinase IKKbeta and NF-kappaB subunit p65. EqM inhibits TNF-alpha-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation by targeting IKKbeta, and an alanine substitution for Cys179 in the activation loop of IKKbeta makes it resistant to EqM-mediated inhibition. EqM also directly inhibits DNA binding by p65, but not p50; moreover, replacement of Cys38 in p65 with Ser abolishes EqM-mediated inhibition of DNA binding. Pretreatment of cells with reducing agent dithiothreitol dose-dependently reduces EqM-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB, further suggesting that EqM directly modifies the thiol group of Cys residues in protein targets. Modifications of the exocyclic alkene of EqM substantially reduce EqM's ability to inhibit NF-kappaB activation. In the human SUDHL-4 lymphoma cell line, EqM inhibits both proliferation and NF-kappaB DNA binding, and activates caspase-3 activity. EqM also effectively inhibits the growth of human leukemia, kidney, and colon cancer cell lines in the NCI's tumor cell panel. Among six colon cancer cell lines, those with low amounts of constitutive NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity are generally more sensitive to growth inhibition by EqM. Taken together, these results suggest that EqM inhibits growth and induces cell death in tumor cells through a mechanism that involves inhibition of NF-kappaB activity at multiple steps in the signaling pathway.Biochemical Pharmacology 03/2006; 71(5):634-45. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2005.11.013 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diverse cellular and biological functions of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway, together with the catastrophic consequences of its aberrant regulation, demand specific and highly regulated control of its activity. As described in this review, regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway is brought about through multiple post-translational modifications that control the activity of the core components of NF-kappaB signaling: the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, the IkappaB proteins and the NF-kappaB subunits themselves. These regulatory modifications, which include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, sumoylation and nitrosylation, can vary, depending on the nature of the NF-kappaB-inducing stimulus. Moreover, they frequently have distinct, sometimes antagonistic, functional consequences and the same modification can have different effects depending on the context. Given the important role of NF-kappaB in human health and disease, understanding these pathways will not only provide valuable insights into mechanism and function, but could also lead to new drug targets and the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for many pathological conditions.Oncogene 11/2006; 25(51):6717-30. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1209937 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new NF-kappaB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) has a potential to be applied to clinical medicine as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent. DHMEQ inhibits localization of NF-kappaB in the nucleus and the inhibitory effect by DHMEQ is more potent on p50/RelA than on p50 homodimer. However, a molecular target of DHMEQ is unknown. In this study, we identified residues CEGRSAGSI, which appear in RelA (amino acids 38-46), c-Rel (28-36), and RelB (144-152), but not in p50 and p52, as a target of DHMEQ. As a possible mechanism, we propose that DHMEQ accesses CEGRSAGSI domain recognizing RSAGSI structure and directly binds to cysteine. This target domain appears to be unique among mammalian proteins. The results obtained in this study may provide better understanding of the action of DHMEQ and a key for developing a new NF-kappaB inhibitor with more potent activity.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2008; 376(2):310-4. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.08.148 · 2.28 Impact Factor