Chiau WY. Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.Mar Pollut Bull 51(8-12):1041-7
Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80443, Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin
(Impact Factor: 2.99).
02/2005; 51(8-12):1041-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.02.048
The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system.
Available from: James Innes
- "Analternativetoassurancebondsisrequiringdevelopers orproponentsofotheractivitiesinthemarineenvironment toinsureagainstthecostsofrestorationof(orcompensation for)potentialenvironmentaldamage.Apotentialbenefitofan insurance-basedsystemisthattheriskcouldbesoldonthe insurancemarket,withindustrymemberspayingapremium totheinsurerwhichreflectstheinsured'spastperformance andadoptionofmitigationtechnologies(Pascoeetal.,2010). Aswithassurancebonds,theaimofinsuranceistoprovide incentivestoavoiddamage,asthosethataremostsuccessful (throughtheiractionsortechnologiesemployed)willfacelower premiums.Insurancemarketshavebeenusedinthemanagement ofpollutioninanumberofcountries(OECD,2003),and thereisgenerallyamandatoryrequirementforoiltankers tohaveappropriateinsuranceagainstoilspillsinthemarine environment(Chiau,2005;Zhu,2007).Ahvenharjuetal.(2011) foundthatinsurance-basedsystemsweremostsuitablewhere adverseoutcomesmayinvolvehighcostswhichindividualswere unlikelytobeabletomeet,butthelikelihoodandconsequences oftheseoutcomeswerehighlyuncertain.Anadvantageof insuranceinthisrespectisthatthecoverispotentiallyopenended ,unlikebondswhicharesetatapredeterminedlevel. "
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ABSTRACT: Internationally, marine biodiversity conservation objectives are having an increasing influence on the management of commercial fisheries. While this is largely being implemented through marine protected areas other management measures, such as market based instruments (MBIs), have proved to be effective at managing target species catch in fisheries and reducing environmental impacts in industries such as mining and tourism. Market-based management measures aim to mitigate the impacts of activities by better aligning the incentives their participants face with the objectives of management, changing their behavior as a consequence. In this paper, we review the potential of MBIs as management tools to mitigate undesirable environmental impacts associated with commercial fishing. Where they exist, examples of previous applications are described and the factors that influence their applicability and effectiveness are discussed. Several fishing methods and impacts are considered and suggest that whilst no single approach is most appropriate in all circumstances either replacing or complementing existing management arrangements with MBIs has the potential to improve environmental performance. This has a number of implications. From the environmental perspective they should enable levels of undesirable impacts such as damage to sensitive habitat or the bycatch of protected species of turtles, marine mammals and seabirds to be reduced. The increased flexibility MBIs allow industry when developing solutions also has the potential to reduce costs to both the industry and managers, improving the cost-effectiveness of regulation as a result. Further, in the increasingly relevant case of MPAs the need for publicly funded compensation often paid to industry when vessels are excluded from grounds, may also be significantly reduced if improved environmental performance makes it possible for some industry members to continue operating.
Available from: AlberTinka Murk
- "Reviews of recent oil spills (Serret et al. 2003; Chiau 2005; Chapman et al. 2007; Cheong 2010), show that (implementation of) supportive tools still need to be improved. For example, in the incident with the oil tanker Natuna Sea, causing a spill estimated at 7000 tons of highly viscous crude oil in the Singapore Straits in 2000, dispersant was applied to thick oil patches around the stricken vessel without the knowledge that the oil was not amenable to chemical dispersion (Chapman et al. 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 04/2012; 8(2):231-41. DOI:10.1002/ieam.273 · 1.38 Impact Factor
Available from: jmst.org.tw
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ABSTRACT: On October 10 th , 2005, the chemical ship SAMHO BROTHER mishap occurred in the Taiwan Strait while transporting a cargo of benzene. Explosive approach was applied but failed, causing the ship wreck sank to a depth of 70 m. Oil spill was recovered in a small amount, leaving about 50 tons of the fuel remained. On the other hand, environmental monitoring at the site of the accident revealed that almost all of the great amount of 3140 m 3 benzene remains stored in the nine tanks on the ship and further actions upon such a unique event in the his-tory are urgent. Some possible ways for countermeasure policy are analyzed and discussed subjectively and objectively based on considerations of the ship owner and the government of the Republic of China at Taiwan. They are to leave the ship at its current site, to salvage the ship and its cargo, to extract the remaining fuel oil and benzene, and to blow up the ship in an underwater explosion.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 09/2007; 54(8):1285-6. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.03.013 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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