The association between prior percutaneous coronary intervention and short-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
American heart journal (Impact Factor: 4.56). 11/2005; 150(5):1026-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.03.035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increasingly, patients are being referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for management of symptoms after prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this study, we assessed the impact of prior PCI on inhospital mortality after CABG.
Perioperative data were collected on patients who underwent first-time CABG at 2 surgical centers. Patients who underwent PCI and CABG during the same admission were excluded. Patients with prior PCI were compared with patients with no prior PCI, and the risk-adjusted impact of prior PCI on inhospital mortality after CABG was determined using both multivariate techniques and propensity score matching techniques.
Six thousand thirty-two patients met inclusion criteria. Patients with prior PCI were less likely to be between the ages of 70 and 80 (P < .0001), to have an ejection fraction <0.40 (P < .0001), and to have 3-vessel/left main disease (P < .0001). They were, however, more likely to have Canadian Cardiovascular Society class IV symptoms (P < .0001) and to have an urgent status (P = .02). Rates of inhospital mortality after CABG were higher in patients with prior PCI (3.6% vs 2.3%, P = .02). Using multivariate techniques, prior PCI emerged as an independent predictor of postoperative inhospital mortality (odds ratio 1.93, P = .003). When patients with prior PCI were matched to patients with no prior PCI using propensity scores, inhospital mortality remained higher among patients with prior PCI (3.6% vs 1.7%, P = .01).
Patients with prior PCI presented for CABG with less comorbidity and diminished coronary disease; yet, they had more advanced symptoms and greater urgency. After adjusting for these differences, prior PCI emerged as an independent predictor of inhospital mortality after CABG.

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    ABSTRACT: A number of studies reported on a possible increased risk of morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the outcome of patients undergoing coronary surgery with or without prior percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. Only studies reporting results of adjusted analysis and excluding acute percutaneous coronary intervention failures were included in this meta-analysis. Literature search yielded nine studies reporting on 68,645 patients who underwent coronary surgery. Of them, 8,358 (12.2%) had a prior percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients without prior percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly older (p=0.002), had significantly higher prevalence of left main stenosis (p=0.005) and three-vessel disease (p<0.0001). Prior percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with higher risk of resternotomy for bleeding (p=0.04) and dialysis (p=0.003). Thirty-day/in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention (pooled rate: 2.7% vs 2.0%, risk ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.84, p=0.02) as confirmed also by generic inverse variance analysis (risk ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.93, p=0.005). Prior percutaneous coronary intervention did not affect late outcome (five studies included, risk ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.28, p=0.43). Prior percutaneous coronary intervention seems to be associated with an increased risk of immediate postoperative morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery, but does not affect late mortality. These results are not conclusive and need to be confirmed by studies of better quality evaluating the impact of indication, timing, type of stents, amount of treated vessels and number of previous percutaneous coronary interventions.


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Jul 10, 2014