Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: Analyses of the NHANES I

Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 4.59). 11/2005; 28(10):1289-96.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sleep deprivation has been hypothesized to contribute toward obesity by decreasing leptin, increasing ghrelin, and compromising insulin sensitivity. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a large United States sample to determine whether sleep duration is associated with obesity and weight gain.
Longitudinal analyses of the 1982-1984, 1987, and 1992 NHANES I Followup Studies and cross-sectional analysis of the 1982-1984 study.
Probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States.
Sample sizes of 9,588 for the cross-sectional analyses, 8,073 for the 1987, and 6,981 for the 1992 longitudinal analyses.
Measured weight in 1982-1984 and self-reported weights in 1987 and 1992. Subjects between the ages of 32 and 49 years with self-reported sleep durations at baseline less than 7 hours had higher average body mass indexes and were more likely to be obese than subjects with sleep durations of 7 hours. Sleep durations over 7 hours were not consistently associated with either an increased or decreased likelihood of obesity in the cross-sectional and longitudinal results. Each additional hour of sleep at baseline was negatively associated with change in body mass index over the follow-up period, but this association was small and statistically insignificant.
These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is associated with obesity in a large longitudinally monitored United States sample. These observations support earlier experimental sleep studies and provide a basis for future studies on weight control interventions that increase the quantity and quality of sleep.

Download full-text


Available from: Dolores Malaspina, Aug 20, 2014
215 Reads
  • Source
    • "Sleep is a basic life process that greatly affects human health. The effects of sleep disturbance or deprivation on the brain, mind and body include not only hypobulia and depression, but also effects potentially leading to hypertension and obesity (Gangwisch et al. 2005), thus impairing human quality of life. According to a World Health Organization study, 1 of every 2 persons with insomnia develops some illness other than sleep disturbance within 1 year and requires medical care (Ustün et al. 1995). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of L-serine intake on human sleep, we conducted two randomized double-blinded crossover studies. In Study 1, healthy subjects who were dissatisfied with their sleep were given L-serine or a placebo 30 min before going to bed. After waking the next morning, subjective sleep quality was rated using the Ogri-Shirakawa-Azumi subjective sleep rating scale. In Study 2, subjective sleep quality was rated using the St. Mary's Hospital sleep questionnaire, and objective parameters, including sleep initiation time, number of nighttime awakenings, and hours of sleep, were evaluated using actigraphy. In Study 1, factors related to "sleep initiation" and "sleep maintenance" during the L-serine intake period were significantly improved compared to the placebo intake period (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively). In Study 2, scores for "How well did you sleep last night?" and "How satisfied were you with last night's sleep?" were significantly better during L-serine intake compared to placebo (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively). Subjective evaluation of sleep quality on waking was thus improved. In addition, objective evaluation using actigraphy showed that the "number of nighttime awakenings" tended to be decreased (p = 0.08). These findings suggest that intake of L-serine before going to bed may improve human sleep.
    SpringerPlus 08/2014; 3(1):456. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-456
  • Source
    • "Greater efforts to determine specific demographic groups where interventions on PA or sleep result in correlated improvements in either trait would be of interest for interventions aimed at improved energy balance. Multiple studies have reported that shorter and longer than optimal sleep are both associated with increased obesity, diabetes and other morbidities related to energy balance (Buxton and Marcelli, 2010; Gangwisch et al., 2005). Physical activity could mediate the effects of sleep on energy balance related health outcomes (Atkinson and Davenne, 2007; Basner et al., 2007; Gottlieb et al., 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA) or sedentary behavior and self-reported sleep duration or daytime sleepiness in a nationally representative sample of healthy US adults (N=2128). Methods: We report analyses of four aspects of sedentary behavior and PA derived from accelerometry data (minutes of sedentary time, activity counts/minute, Minutes of Moderate and Vigorous PA [MVPA], and MVPA in 10-minute bouts) versus self-report of sleep duration and frequency of daytime sleepiness from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Age and sex dependence of associations between PA and sleep were observed. Aspects of PA were significantly lower in adults reporting more frequent daytime sleepiness in younger (20-39) and older (≥ 60) age groups, but not in middle-aged (40-59), respondents. In younger respondents, PA increased with sleep duration, but in middle aged and older respondents PA was either unrelated to sleep duration or lower in those reporting ≥ 8 h of sleep. Objectively measured sedentary time showed limited evidence of associations with sleep duration. Conclusions: Further research delineating the relationships between sleep and PA is important because both activities have been implicated in diverse health outcomes as well as in the etiology of obesity.
    Preventive Medicine 06/2014; 66. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.003 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Evening lateness correlates with good sleep (higher S score) and, unlike M and M + E scores, it is also linked to shorter rather than longer sleep duration (Tables 1 and 2). It is well documented that chronic sleep insufficiency (less than 7 h per night) has wide-ranging negative effects on the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and immune systems (Pilcher & Huffcutt 1996; Kapur et al. 2002; Baldwin & Daugherty 2004; Fredriksen et al. 2004; Taheri et al. 2004; Gangwisch et al. 2005; Yaggi et al. 2006; Ferrie et al. 2007; Hublin et al. 2007; Meerlo et al. 2008; Hairston et al. 2010). Therefore , evening lateness might be suspected to be a costly (honest) indicator of fitness, but through displaying such trait as shortening of sleep duration rather than through the risk of worsening mental and somatic health. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since evolutionary process is slow, the human brain was adapted to the ancestral rather than today's environment. Therefore, genetic predisposition of young people to nocturnal lifestyle requires explanation. The pattern of age- and sex-associated differences revealed from self-reports of 2054 native and non-native residents of Turkmenia, Siberia, Yakutia, Chukotka and Alaska suggested that late bedtime preference might has evolved under sexual selection pressure. Moreover, simulation of experimental data on prolonged wakefulness indicated that differences between people preferring early, late and extremely late bedtimes (n = 39, 53 and 38, respectively) on wave-forms of their alertness rhythm can be explained by a relatively small circadian phase delay. It was hypothesized that, due to sexual division of daytime labour in ancestral societies, the late bedtime preference evolved to solve an adaptive problem of creation of early night lek for displaying throughout courtship various human-specific behaviours advertising high cognitive, music, gymnastic, artistic, language and humour abilities.
    Biological Rhythm Research 05/2014; 45(5). DOI:10.1080/09291016.2014.913950 · 0.92 Impact Factor
Show more

Similar Publications