Reducing the risk of deep wound infection in primary joint arthroplasty with antibiotic bone cement
ABSTRACT Despite significant advances in intraoperative antimicrobial procedures, deep wound infection remains the most serious complication associated with primary, cemented total joint arthroplasty. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate studies of antibiotic bone cement prophylaxis for reducing the risk of deep wound infection. The literature included 22 articles providing estimates of the prophylactic effectiveness of antibiotic cement. In reducing deep wound infection, antibiotic cement was consistently superior to plain cement, similar to systematic antiobiotics, and independent and additive in effect when combined with other prophylactic measures. Randomized controlled trials in particular had important methodological limitations. However, the collective results nearly unanimously favored prophylactic use of antibiotic cement in primary arthoplasty procedures.
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ABSTRACT: To describe 2 cases of acute renal failure (ARF) associated with the use of antibiotic-laden cement incorporated in total hip arthroplasties (THA). An 82-year-old female received a right THA with antibiotic-laden cement spacers. She developed ARF 5 months following implantation, concurrent with an elevated serum tobramycin concentration of 5.5 microg/mL. After explantation of the prosthesis and spacers, serum creatinine and antibiotic concentrations decreased to within normal limits. A 79-year-old male received antibiotic-laden cement spacers in a revision of his right THA due to infection. ARF developed 1 1/2 months after the revision; a serum tobramycin concentration was 2.9 microg/mL. Serum creatinine and antibiotic serum concentrations decreased to within normal limits with explantation. More than 250 000 joint replacements are performed yearly in the US. A common complication is infection, which occurs in 1-2% of primary replacements and 3-4% of revisions of previously infected prostheses. Antibiotic-laden cement is used for prosthesis placement to prevent or treat infection, while minimizing systemic drug exposure. Both patients described here received antibiotic-laden spacers during THA and subsequently developed ARF in conjunction with elevated serum tobramycin concentrations. Use of the Naranjo probability scale and consideration of possible contributing factors suggest a probable association of the antibiotic-laden cement and the development of ARF in these patients. Antibiotic-laden cement with aminoglycosides and/or vancomycin has the potential for systemic toxicity and should be used according to guidelines and with increased vigilance and prudent monitoring in patients at increased risk for nephrotoxicity.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 12/2006; 40(11):2037-42. DOI:10.1345/aph.1H173 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this review, we discuss current advances leading to an exciting change in implant design for orthopedic surgery. The initial biomaterial approaches in implant design are being replaced by cellular-molecular interactions and nanoscale chemistry. New designs address implant complications, particularly loosening and infection. For infection, local delivery systems are an important first step in the process. Selfprotective 'smart' devices are an example of the next generation of orthopedic implants. If proven to be effective, antibiotics or other active molecules that are tethered to the implant surface through a permanent covalent bond and tethering of antibiotics or other biofactors are likely to transform the practice of orthopedic surgery and other medical specialties. This new technology has the potential to eliminate periprosthetic infection, a major and growing problem in orthopedic practice.Expert Review of Medical Devices 02/2007; 4(1):55-64. DOI:10.1586/174344126.96.36.199 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The release kinetics of vancomycin from calcium phosphate dihydrate (brushite) matrices and polymer/brushite composites were compared using different fluid replacement regimes, a regular replacement (static conditions) and a continuous flow technique (dynamic conditions). The use of a constantly refreshed flowing resulted in a faster drug release due to a constantly high diffusion gradient between drug loaded matrix and the eluting medium. Drug release was modeled using the Weibull, Peppas and Higuchi equations. The results showed that drug liberation was diffusion controlled for the ceramics matrices, whereas ceramics/polymer composites led to a mixed diffusion and degradation controlled release mechanism. The continuous flow technique was for these materials responsible for a faster release due to an accelerated polymer degradation rate compared with the regular fluid replacement technique.Acta Biomaterialia 04/2008; 4(5):1480-6. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2008.02.027 · 5.68 Impact Factor